When the State is Absent: The Old and The New "Pengabdi Setan"

A comparison of the two "Satan's Slave" films through a social prism

(Originally published on cinemapoetica.com entitled “Ketika Negara Tak Lagi Ada: "Pengabdi Setan" dulu dan Sekarang” written by Wiman Rizkidarajat, translatted by Brigitta Isabella)

Horror movies, according to Katinka Van Heeren in Contemporary Indonesian Film: Spirit of Reform and Ghost from the Past, are like a parade which displays—or sometimes questions—many social taboos in our society. Indeed, ghosts, demon, devil or other antagonists in horror movies may reflect the deepest fear hidden at the heart of our society. Horror movies are potent cultural indexes, because they represent the moral signs of the time in a society. The old and the new versions of "Pengabdi Setan" (Satan’s Slave) are the case in point.

Here are the things to consider. The first version of "Pengabdi Setan", directed by Sisworo Gautama Putra, was released in 1980. During that time, the New Order regime (1967-1998) was playing a dominant role in formulating and emphasizing myths that live in Indonesian society, as a mean to control people. From the demonization of communism with the production of the infamous propaganda film "Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI" (Treachery of G30S/PKI, 1984) to the, literally, vulgar display of dead bodies on the street (1983-1985)—fears were vertically produced.

Fast forward to 2017, Joko Anwar, the director of the new version of "Pengabdi Setan" , is surrounded by different social conditions. The State still holds a little bit of power in reproducing myths in society, but now, millions of people are ready to challenge it. After the Reformasi era in 1998, the rise of democracy has not only returned the right for free speech to the people, but also made them able to reproduce their own myths. Fears are now horizontally produced.

The Good-Bad Morality

In the 1980 version of "Pengabdi Setan", the display of social taboos was performed by the film characters. Munarto was depicted as a father, the head of the family who abandoned his religious responsibility. He prioritized too much his career and became an inadequate single parent. The rest of Munarto’s family members were also displaying social taboos. Rita, the first daughter in the family, was going around from party to party with her boyfriend, Herman. Tomy, the youngest son who was disturbed and haunted by his mother’s ghost, was resorting to black magic instead of finding peace through religion. In Indonesian society, these would be the god-awful package of social taboos, both in the mortal and the immortal worlds.

Munarto felt that the root of his family problems was the absence of the mother figure. So he hired Darminah, a domestic worker who did not solve any of the problem and instead, became the new source of troubles for the family.

Munarto’s family religious preference should not be anyone’s business. It was their personal affairs with God, not with other human beings, like Darminah, for example. The film’s story did not unfold through logical motives, like the psychology of revenge or economical motives—which could be the case since Munarto came from a high class background. Instead, the film was only following the homogenization of moral discipline enforced by the government.

In the early 1980s, the Badan Film Nasional (National Body of Film) formulated an ethical code of Indonesian film production and organized several other committees to enforce the ethical code. One of the committee's requirements, was that Indonesian films should follow the first principle of Pancasila (the foundational philosophical theory of Indonesian state), which is the belief in the one and only God.

The rule had an impact on the way the storyline in Indonesian films was produced. Simplification of logic. One of them was the polarization between the good and the bad through the reproduction of social taboos. When the good and the bad were conflicting, the good had to win over the bad through the mechanical emergence of the figure of savior who suddenly came in, just like deux ex machina. In most of Indonesian films, the savior would be Kyai, an Islamic male leadership figure.

In the 1980 version of "Pengabdi Setan", there were a lot of plot holes in the storyline and the film was at best a parade of social taboos. Darminah brought so many complicated conflicts to the family. From the strange case of death around Munarto’s family to the zombie attack—all were solved by the appearance of the kyai, which is the symbol of the simplification of logic enforced by the State.

New Logic

In his version of "Pengabdi Setan" , Joko Anwar has brought an exceptional change to the storyline by adding new logics to fill plot holes in the previous version. New logics mean new conflicts, although the foundational story of the new "Pengabdi Setan" is still based on social taboos with the necessary re-contextualization for the present audiences.

The social taboos in Joko Anwar’s version were displayed gradually, and at the end of the day, the social taboos were forced to look like they were all interrelated. The first taboo was present when the Father told the ustadz (religious scholar) who led the burial ceremony of his wife, that he and his family did not perform shalat (Islamic prays).

When the ghost of Ibu (the Mother) was starting to haunt the family’s three children—Rini, Toni and Bondi—the film presented another taboo: the unblessed marriage of the couple by the Father’s mother and the mysterious ritual that the Mother performed in order to get a child. The latter fact was revealed through the grandmother’s best friend, Budiman, who told Rini that her mother was joining a satanic fertility ritual to get pregnant.

The taboos in Joko Anwar’s "Pengabdi Setan" were more realistic than the older version of the film. The audience were not presented with a collage of scary scenes throughout the film without knowing the real reason why the ghost of the Mother kept on haunting the family. Religious symbols still appeared through the figure of ustadz, but he was not the source of moral code in the film’s world. The ustadz was depicted as an ordinary human beingm who had no special differences from the other individuals around the family.

The ustadz was not positioned as the hero of the story. Instead, he only appeared in the story to link Rini and Hendra, the ustadz’s son, who claimed that he is “open to new theories.” Rini and Rendra developed a strong relationship and every act they did together, from investigating the cemetery to meeting with Budiman, always came with a new momentum in the film’s story. Apparently, all the prayers and suggestions from the ustadz to bring the family closer to God had no effect at all in the story.

The ustadz being an ordinary human being was once again emphasized when his son was killed in a strange road accident. The ustadz believed that Rini was the cause of his son’s sudden death, so he decided to stop helping the family’s horror problem. The peak was when the ustadz was killed by another figure in the story. He could not help anyone because he was not even able to help himself.


Although the storyline of the new version of "Pengabdi Setan" is better than the older one, there are still some plot holes. Joko Anwar seemed unable to stop his exploration on social taboos in the story and as a result, there were some parts which had unfinished information, and even betrayed the initial logics of the film.

An example of the unfinished information is when the Father asked the Mother to “pity her children” at the beginning of the film, as we never know the full conversation until the end of the movie. However, through other dialogues in the development of the story, we know that both the Father and the Mother understood the tragic consequences of the satanic fertility ritual. Even if we tried to make sense that scene with Rini’s attempt to meet Budiman, we still could not trace whether the Mother’s decision to perform the ritual was based on a consensus with the Father or by her own decision.

Another example is when Rini and Toni received Budiman’s article revision on the story he wrote about the occultism. Tony tried to convince everyone that he had another proof to support Budiman, which is a photo of his Mother surrounded by strange people who appeared in the Mother’s concert. He did this without any hesitation, although the photo album was stored in their living room where the conversation took place. Magic!

"Pengabdi Setan" is not consistent with its own internal logic. The ghost was first depicted as an invisible specter but then suddenly it became a solid creature with a human-like body and could be hindered from going through a door.

"Pengabdi Setan" by Joko Anwar, however, should be acclaimed as a great attempt to elevate the standard of Indonesian horror films. There’s a rumor that Joko Anwar will made a sequel to the film, and if that is true, we may find explanations of plot holes in the present film. For now, to judge the film as a single form, "Pengabdi Setan"’s downfall is caused not by the State’s mandatory logic but instead by the logic of the film’s director.



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Jigme,1,Kfc,2,Khavn,2,Khosla Ka Ghosla!,1,Khushboo Ranka,1,Khyentse Norbu,2,Kill me,1,Killing Beauty,1,Kim Bong-han,1,Kim Eun-hee,1,Kim Hong-seon,1,Kim Hong-Sun,1,Kim Hyun-seok,1,Kim Jee-woon,4,Kim Jong-Kwan,1,Kim Joo-hwan,1,Kim Ki-duk,5,Kim Kih-hoon,1,Kim Min-suk,1,Kim Seong-hoon,1,Kim Tae-kyeong,1,Kim Whee,1,Kim Yong-hwa,1,King Hu,1,Kingyo,2,Kirti Raj Singh,1,Kiss me,1,Kiyoshi Kurosawa,4,Kôbun Shizuno,1,Kodoku Meatball Machine,1,Koji Fukada,1,Koji Wakamatsu,1,Kon Ichikawa,2,Konkona Sen Sharma,1,Konrad Aderer,2,Korea,1,korean drama,1,Kotoko,1,Kristina Aschenbrennerova,1,Krzysztof Pietrzak,1,Kun-Yu Lai,14,Kung Fu Yoga,1,Kwak Kyung-taek,2,Kyoko Miyake,2,Kyriacos Kyriacou,3,Labour of Love,1,Lady of the Lake,1,Lady Snowblood,2,Lam Wingsum,1,Laos,3,Laughing Under the Clouds,1,Lawrence Ah Mon,1,Le Binh Giang,2,Le Bình Giang,2,Leandro E. 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Johnson,1,Matthias Hoene,1,Maundy Thursday,1,Mayaanadhi,1,Mayurakshi,1,Meghe Dhaka Tara,1,Memoir of a Murderer,1,Merantau,1,Mermaid,1,Miaoyan Zhang,1,Michael Haertlein,1,Michelle Hung Tsz-ching,2,Midi Z,1,Midnight Runners,1,Midori Impuls,4,Midori The Camelia Girl,1,Mikhail Red,4,Milk the Maid,1,Minamata: The Victims and Their World,1,Ming-Yeh Rawnsley,1,Minoru Kunizawa,1,Mira Nair,1,Miss Zombie,1,Miwa Nishikawa,2,Mohammad Rasoulof,1,Mohammad-Reza Lotfi,1,Mon Mon Mon Monsters,1,Mong-Hong Chung,2,Mongolia,2,Monika S-r,1,Monologue,1,Moon Lovers,1,Mototsugu Watanabe,4,Mouly Surya,3,Mountains May Depart,2,Mourning Forest,1,Movie,2,Moving,1,Mr. Socrates,1,Mrs Fang,1,Mrs K,2,Mukti Bhawan (Hotel Salvation),1,Mumon: The Land of Stealth,1,Museum,1,My Beloved Yak,1,My Dad and Mr Ito,1,My Heart is that Eternal Rose,1,My Hero Chihiro,1,Myanmar,1,Nah Hyeon,1,Namiya,1,Nandita Roy,1,Naoko Ogigami,5,Naomi Kawase,3,Naosuke Kurosawa,1,Naoyuki Tomomatsu,3,Nawapol Thamrongrattanarit,2,Neeraj Ghaywan,1,Neko Atsume House,1,Neomanila,2,Nepal,1,Nervous Translation,1,Neuchâtel International Fantastic Film Festival,1,Never Ending Blue,1,New Neighbor,2,New World,1,News,7,Newton,1,Nicholas Poly,4,Night Bus,1,Night is Short,1,Night is Short Walk on Girl,1,Night of the Felines,1,Nikhil Allug,1,Nikkatsu,1,Nikola Cekic,1,Ninja Pussy Cat,1,Nirbaak,1,Niwatsukino Norihiro,1,No Where,1,Noboru Iguchi,1,Noboru Tanaka,1,Noboru Uguchi,1,Nobuhiko Obayashi,1,Nobuhiro Yamashita,2,Nobuo Nakagawa,2,Nobuyuki Takeuchi,2,Noise,2,Non-fiction Diary,1,Norbu,1,Noriaki Tsuchimoto,1,Norihiro Niwatsukino,1,Norjmaa,1,Norman England,2,North Korea,2,Now Here,1,Nurse Diary: Beast Afternoon,1,NYAFF,34,Nyamdavaa Baasansuren,1,Odd Obsession,1,Oh In-Chun,1,Old Boy,2,Old Stone,1,Old-School Kung-Fu Fest,3,Omar Rasya Joenoes,4,On the Job,1,On The Line Festival,3,On the Run,1,Onibaba,1,Operation Red Sea,1,Ophilia,1,Ordinary Person,1,Osaka Asian Film Festival,5,Osamu Sato,1,Our Happy time,1,Our Time Will Come,1,Outrage Coda,1,Over the Fence,1,Oxhide,1,Oxhide II,1,Oxide Pang,1,Pad Man,1,Padmavati,2,Pai Kau,1,Palatpol Mingpornpichit,2,Pale Flower,1,Panos,1,Panos Kotzathanasis,260,Paresh Mokashi,1,Park Chan-wook,2,Park Hee-joon,1,Park Hoon-Jung,3,Park In-je,1,Park Ki- hyung,1,Park Kwang-hyun,1,Parkpoom Wongpoom,1,Party Round the Globe,1,Past and Future,1,Patrick Hofmeister,69,Patrick Tam,1,Pedro Morata,10,Peerachai Kerdsint,1,Pelden Dorji,1,Pema "Tintin" Tshering,1,Pema Tshering,1,Pen-Ek Ratanaruang,2,Peng Xiaolian,1,Pengfei,2,Pepe Diokno,1,Peque Gallaga,1,Perfect Blue,2,Peter Chan,1,Peter Chen,1,Phanumad Disattha,1,Philippines,17,Pieter - Jan Van Haecke,4,Pieter-Jan Van Haecke,7,Pink Eiga,13,PinkEiga.TV,4,pinku eiga,1,Pinneyum,1,Poet on a Business Trip,1,Poolside Man,1,Posto,1,Press Release,2,Prophecy,1,Proshoon Rahmaan,2,Psychic,1,Pumpkin and Mayonnaise,1,Queen of Triads,1,R.Balki,1,Rabbit and Lizard,1,Radiance,1,Rage. Lee Sang-il,1,Rahul Jain,1,Railway Sleepers,1,Rainy Dog,1,Raja Mukhriz,1,Rajkumar Gupta,1,Ram,1,Ram Gopal Varma,1,Randy Mckenzie,4,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead,1,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead 2,1,Ravine of Goodbye,1,Re:Born,1,Real,1,Realism,1,Red Beard,1,Red Persimmons,1,Reipu zonbi: Lust of the dead 3,1,Resistance at Tule Lake,1,Respeto,2,Resurrection,1,Revenge: A love story,1,Review,6,Reviews,277,Reviews.,2,Reviews. Panos Kotzathanasis,1,Riri Riza,3,Ritwik Ghatak,2,River of Exploding Durians,2,River's Edge,2,Robin Weng,1,Roger Lee,2,Roman Porno,1,Ronja,1,Rouge,1,Roya Sadat,2,Running on Karma,1,Russia,1,RV: Resurrected Victims,1,Ryoo Seung-wan,1,Ryota Sakamaki,1,Ryuki,1,Ryutaro Ninomiya,2,S. Korea,71,S.Korea,2,Saayak Santra,9,Sabrina Baracetti,1,Sabu,3,Salaam Bombay,1,Samui Song,1,San Diego Asian Film Festival,13,San Diego Film Festival,1,Sanjay Leela Bhansali,2,Sanjeewa Pushpakumara,2,Sankha Ray,29,Sarita Khurana,1,Satan's Slaves,3,Satoru Hirohara,1,Satoshi Kon,3,Satya,1,Satyajit Ray,1,Say Yes,1,Sayandeep Bandyopadhyay,6,Scarlet Heart,1,Score,1,Seijun Suzuki,3,Sekigahara,1,Serga Mathang,1,Sexy S.W.A.T. Team,1,Sha Po Lang,1,Shake Rattle and Roll,1,Shakti Sounder Rajan,1,Shanjhey Kumar Perumal,1,Shanker Raman,1,Shaw Brothers,2,She Remembers He Forgets,2,She's the Boss,1,Shehjar,1,Shiboprosad Mukherjee,1,Shift,2,Shigeru Umebayashi,1,Shikhar Verma,11,Shikhar Verna,3,Shinichi Fukazawa,1,Shinji Somai,2,Shinji Sômai,1,Shinjuku Swan,1,shinjuku Swan II,1,Shinjuku Triad Society,1,Shinobi no Kuni,2,Shinsuke Ogawa,1,Shinsuke Sato,2,Shinya Tsukamoto,4,Shireen Seno,2,Shirley Abraham,1,Shock Wave,1,Shôhei Imamura,1,Shoot for the Contents,1,Shorts,4,Shotaro Kobayashi,1,Shu Qi,1,Shunji Iwai,2,Shutter,1,Shuttle Life,2,Shyam Ramsay,1,Siddiq Ahamed,1,Sidharth Bharathan,1,Signature,1,Silent Mist,1,Silver Spleen,2,Singapore,2,Singh Anand,1,Singing Chen,1,Sinophone,1,Sion Sono,10,Siti,1,Sixth Sense Hooker,1,Slavemen,1,Sleep Curse,1,Small Talk,2,Smriti Mundhra,1,Sogo Ishii,2,Solanin,1,Solitude,1,Solo,1,Someone To Talk To,1,Sompot Chidgasompongse,2,Song Hae-sung,1,Song Kang-ho,1,Song of the Week,22,Sopawan Boonnimitra,1,Sopon Sakdapisit,1,Soul,1,Soul Mate,1,SoulMate,2,South Korea,20,Sri Lanka,3,Srijit Mukherji,7,Stammering Ballad,1,Stanley Kwan,1,Stanley Tong,1,Steel Rain,1,Stephen Chow,1,Stephen Fung,2,Steve James,1,Still the Water,1,Stoneman Murders,1,Story in Taipei,1,Strange Circus,1,Studio Ghibli,1,StudioCanal,4,Subenja Pongkorn,2,Suffering of Ninko,2,Sugihara Survivors: Jewish and Japanese,1,Suicide Club,1,Suman Mukhopadhay,1,Summer Snow,1,Sun-ho Cho,1,Sunao Katabuchi,3,Sunday Beauty Queen,1,Sung-hong Kim,1,Sunk Into the Womb,1,Susumu Hirasawa,1,Sweating the Small Stuff,2,Tadashi Nagayama,1,Tae Guk Gi,1,Tag,1,Taiwan,26,Takaaki Hashiguchi,1,Takahide Hori,1,Takahiro Miko,1,Takahisa Zeze,1,Takao Nakano,1,Takaomi Ogata,4,Takashi Miike,10,Take Care of My Cat,1,Takeo Kikuchi,2,Takeshi Kaneshiro,1,Takeshi Kitano,1,Takuro Nakamura,2,Talop Wangchuk,1,Tamil,4,Tamura Senichi,1,Tang Seng Kiat,2,Tanit Jitnukul,1,Tanvir Ashraf,2,Taste of Rice Flower,2,Tatara Samurai,1,Tatsuhi Omori,1,Tatsumi,1,Tatsumi Kumashiro,1,Teddy Soeriaatmadja,1,Teenkahon,1,Teppei Nakamura,1,Tetsuo the Iron Man,1,Tetsuya Mariko,1,Tetsuya Nakashima,1,Thailand,20,Thanatos Drunk,1,That's It,1,The Adventurers,2,The Apology,1,The Bad,1,The Blue Redemption,1,The Boy and the Beast,3,The boy from Ipanema,1,The Brink,1,The Chase,1,The Cinema Travellers,1,The Crawler in the Attic,1,The Crazy Family,1,The Day After,1,The Detective,1,The Discloser,1,The Dollhouse,1,The elephant and the sea,2,The Executioner,1,The Eye's Dream,1,The Forsaken Land,1,The Fortress,1,The Gangster's Daughter,1,The Girl Who Never Knew War,1,The Golden Fortress,1,The Good,1,The Great Buddha+,1,The Great Passage,1,The Hole,1,The Hungry Lion,1,The Inugami Family,1,The Iron Ministry,1,The Island That All Flow By,1,The Isthmus,1,The Kid from the Big Apple,1,The King of Pigs,1,The Last Executioner,1,The Last Painting,1,The Long Excuse,1,The Looming Storm,1,The Lowlife,1,The Magic Blade,1,The Man Without a Map,1,The Mayor,1,The Merciless,2,The Mermaid,1,The Muse,1,The Naked Island,1,The Net,1,The Night of the Earthquake,1,The Outlaws,1,The Prison,1,The Promise,1,The Raid,1,The Raid 2,1,The recipe,1,The Road Home,1,The Road to Mandalay,1,the Robber's Daughter,1,The Room,1,The Sacrament,1,The Salesman,1,The Seen and Unseen,1,The Sleep Curse,1,The Sower,2,The Story of the Disappearance of Maryam,1,The Strange Saga of Hiroshi the Freeloading Sex Machine,1,The Swindlers,1,The Table,1,The Third Murder,1,The Thousand Faces of Dunjia,1,The Tiger: An Old Hunter's Tale,1,The Tokyo Night Sky is Always the Densest Shade of Blue,1,The Tooth and the Nail,1,The Truth Beneath,1,The Vanished,1,The Villainess,3,The Violin Player,1,The Way We Are,1,The Weird,1,The Windmill Palm Grove,1,Theeran Adhigaaram Ondru,1,Third WIndow,1,This Is Not What I Expected,1,This Is Not What I Expected!,1,Thondimuthalum Driksakshiyum,1,Three Sisters,1,Three Times,1,Tiffany Hsiung,1,Tik Tik Tik,1,Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan,1,Tokyo Ghoul,1,Tokyo Heaven,1,Tokyo Idols,1,Tokyo Vampire Hotel,1,Tolerance Film Festival,1,Tom Waller,2,Tony Leung,1,Tony Takitani,1,Torico,2,Toronto International Film Festival,1,Toshiaki Toyoda,2,Toshihisa Yokoshima,3,Toshimasha Kobayashi,1,Toshio Matsumoto,1,Toshiya Fujita,1,Town in a Lake,1,Traces of Sin,1,Trailers,80,Train to Busan,1,Tran Ham,1,Translated articles,1,Trapped,1,Travellers and Magicians,1,Treb Monteras II,2,Trinh T. Minh-Ha,3,Triple Threat,1,Tsai Ming-liang,2,Tulsi Ramsay,1,Twenty Two,1,Twilight Dinner,1,Twitch: You Are My Toy,1,Typhoon Club,1,Um Tae-hwa,1,Unbowed,1,V.I.P.,1,Vagabond,1,Vampire Cleanup Department,2,Vanishing Time A Boy Who Returned,1,Vannaphone Sitthirath,1,various,1,Varnyathil Aashanka,1,Verena Paravel,1,Vesoul International Film Festival,20,Vidya Balan,1,Vietnam,5,Vikramaditya Motwane,1,Vimukthi Jayasundara,1,Vinay Shukla,1,Vincent Kok,1,Violated Angels,1,Visitor Q,1,Vital,1,Vitaly Mansky,1,Vivien Qu,1,Voyage to Terengganu,1,Wai Ka-fai,1,Walk on Girl,1,Wang Bing,3,Wang Chao,2,Wang Lung-wei,1,Wang Ming-tai,1,Warriors of the Dawn,2,Weeds on Fire,1,Wei-Hao Cheng,1,Wellgo USA,2,West North West,2,What A Wonderful Family 2,1,What Time Is It There?,1,Whispering Corridors,1,Whispering Star,1,White Sun,1,Who Killed Cock Robin,1,Whore Angel,1,Wilson Yip,1,Wiman Rizkidarajat,1,Wine War,1,Winter Vacation,1,With Prisoners,1,Without Memory,1,Wol-Ha: Very Bad Moon Rising,1,Woman of the Lake,1,Won Shin-Yeon,1,Wong Chun,3,Wong Jing,2,Wong Kar-wai,2,Woo Ming Jin,1,Xaisongkham Induangchanthy,1,Xu Bing,1,Ya-che Yang,1,Yamato (California),4,Yan Pak Wing,2,Yang Chao,2,Yang Ik-june,1,Yang Jong-hyeon,1,Yang Woo-seok,1,Yao Tian,1,Yeon Sang-ho,2,Yes Madam,1,Yeti Obhijaan,2,Yin Liang,1,Yiu-wai Chu,1,Yoji Yamada,1,Yoo Ha,1,Yoon-chul chung,1,Yoonsuk Jung,1,Yosep Anggi Noen,1,Yoshihiro Hanno,1,Yoshihiro Nakamura,2,Yoshihiro Nishimura,3,Yoshimasa Jimbo,1,Yoshinari Nishikori,1,Yoshishige Yoshida,1,Yoshitaka Mori,1,Yoshiyuki Kishi,1,Yosuke Takeuchi,2,Yotsuya kaidan,1,You Losers!,1,Your Name,1,Youth,1,Yu Aoi,2,Yu Irie,1,Yu Sang-wook,1,Yuen Chor,1,Yuen Woo-ping,1,Yuji Shimomura,1,Yûji Tajiri,2,Yujiro Harumoto,2,Yuki Tanada,1,Yukihiko Tsutsumi,2,Yukuhiro Morigaki,2,Yusaku Matsumoto,2,Yutaka Ikejima,3,Yutaro Nakamura,1,Yuya Ishii,2,Zakka Films,2,Zhang Lu,1,Zhang Nan,1,Zhang Yimou,1,Zig Dulay,1,Zombiology: Enjoy Yourself Tonight,1,Zuri Rinpoche. Bhutan. Five Flavours,1,
Asian Film Vault: When the State is Absent: The Old and The New "Pengabdi Setan"
When the State is Absent: The Old and The New "Pengabdi Setan"
A comparison of the two "Satan's Slave" films through a social prism
Asian Film Vault
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