The Death of Chinese Independent Cinema?

Chris Berry answers a very significant question



Written by Chris Berry. The article was initially published on the webpage of the China Policy Institute.

Is independent cinema in China dead? Chinese indies have been in a cat-and-mouse game with the authorities since their beginnings in the 1990s. Regulatory punishments are announced, but somehow the filmmakers carry on. However, the forceful suppression of the Beijing Independent Film Festival in 2014 made people sit up and wonder if it was for real this time. The implementation of China’s first actual Film Law in March of this year seems to have added to the chilling effect.

In April, at the Department of Film Studies at King’s College London, and in association with the Chinese Visual Festival, a symposium optimistically called “The Future of Chinese Independent Cinema” took place. Speakers included Professor Zhang Xianmin of the Beijing Film Academy, who is also one of the leading producers of Chinese independent films, and independent documentary filmmaker and author of a recent Chinese-language book on Chinese indies, Wen Hai, as well as other speakers from outside the People’s Republic of China. Based on what we heard, Chinese indie cinema as we knew it really is in steep decline. But perhaps it is being reborn as something new.

Chinese indie cinema “as we knew it” was a sort of shadow cinema. It went unrecorded in official yearbooks and uncollected by the China Film Archive. But it survived in the grey areas of China’s regulatory regime. “Independent” has a distinctive meaning in China. In the United States and most liberal democracies, “independent cinema” is understood in contrast to Hollywood and other mainstream commercial industries. The main thing that Chinese independent films and filmmakers try to be independent of is the state.


Therefore, the main standard for defining independence in China is not submitting your film to the censors. Censorship is a pre-condition for commercial exhibition. So, the filmmakers figured that if they did not try to sell tickets, making the films was not a problem. Instead, a circuit of events like the Beijing Independent Film Festival sprang up to exhibit the work and enable filmmakers to meet audiences. And because the regulations say that “film festivals” must be approved by the Film Bureau, in Chinese they were called “exhibitions” or “audio-visual screenings” to avoid that issue.

Periodic skirmishes with the authorities let everyone know when they were overstepping the mark, and for two decades, a modus vivendi operated. An alternative archive was produced of hundreds of features and documentaries dealing with topics that would never make it into mainstream Chinese media but were not directly oppositional. But now, that is over. None of the established indie festivals have survived. The new Film Law has been understood by some to mean that even making the films or holding a simple private screening runs the risk of prosecution.


It is often assumed that Xi Jinping’s authoritarian regime that came to power in 2012 is responsible for the crackdown. But in the symposium at King’s, Wen Hai argued the problems went back earlier. The so-called “colour revolutions” of the first decade of the new century spooked the Chinese Communist Party into believing tight control of the “ideological realm” was necessary again, and we are living with the consequences today.

What does this mean for the future? Some key figures have stopped making movies or at least greatly reduced their output. Feminist activist documentarian Ai Xiaoming was forced to retire from her position as a professor at Zhongshan University in Guangzhou, and has only recently started to make films again. Others have sought refuge overseas. Ying Liang, a director and organiser of indie film festivals in Sichuan has been living in Hong Kong, and that is where Wen Hai is based now and making his films.

Other filmmakers have decided to find ways to work “within the system.” The most prominent example is internationally awarded slow film auteur, Jia Zhangke. After getting a high enough profile with his early indie films to attract the attention of the authorities, he was pressured to submit his films to the censorship procedure, starting with The World (Shijie) in 2004. Today, more “independent-style” films are emerging from China. They look independent, but they have gone through censorship. Next time you see a Chinese “independent” film, check to see if opens with a “dragon seal” credit, the sign that it has been approved by the Chinese censors. Bi Gan’s much talked-about Kaili Blues (Lubian Yecan, 2015) and Yang Chao’s Crosscurrent (Changjiang Tu, 2015), which won Mark Li Ping-Bing a Silver Bear for cinematography at Berlin in 2016, are both examples. Whether these are true indies remains debated.


Meanwhile, although the high-profile indie film festivals have disappeared, a map that Zhang Xianmin showed during the symposium confirmed that various film clubs and other non-commercial screening activities continue. Independent events that do not feature independent films have not been shut down. For example, the FIRST International Film Festival in Xining is carefully called an “exhibition” in Chinese. Focused on young filmmaker debuts, 2016 marked its tenth edition.

Clearly, the situation remains difficult in the film world. But the energy that drove the independent scene is inspiring new initiatives elsewhere. The art world is one such space. In China, as elsewhere, no self-respecting contemporary art exhibition would omit moving image work. Some of China’s most prominent artists, like Cao Fei and Yang Fudong, are best known for their moving image work. And some of the established independent filmmakers, like Wang Bing and Zhao Liang, are increasingly active as artists on the gallery circuit.

Last but not least is the online world. In recent years, the Chinese equivalents of Youtube have become host to a vast ocean of short videos. Most are clips or music videos. But some are recognised as “micro-movies” (weidianying). We are only just beginning to find out about Chinese “micro-movies.” But what seems to drive many of them is the desire to talk about things you cannot find on mainstream television. Of course, the censors operate online, too. But there they are reactive rather than proactive. By the time an offensive “micro-movie” is deleted, it has often been widely downloaded and shared already.

None of this is intended to downplay the impact of the crackdown in the world of Chinese non-mainstream cinema. There has been a sea change, and the indie scene is greatly diminished. But to assume that China will no longer produce exciting and alternative moving image works would be a great mistake – they just may not be where we used to find them.

Chris Berry is professor of Film Studies at King’s College London and has published widely on Chinese and East Asian cinema.

Image Credit: CC by Silveira Neto/Flickr.

COMMENTS

Name

13 Assassins,1,1987: When The Day Comes,1,2017,3,2LDK,1,3-Iron,1,A Better Tomorrow 2018,2,A Company Man,1,A Day,1,A Feeling Greater Than Love,1,A few words about us,1,A Girl at my Door,1,A Lonely Cow Weeps at Dawm,1,A Love,1,A Man of Integrity,1,A Man Vanishes,1,A Simple Life,1,A Single Rider,1,A Special Lady,1,A Stone from Another Mountain to Polish Your Own Stone. Go Shibata,1,A Tale of Love,1,A Taxi Driver,1,A tiger in winter,1,A Whale of a Tale,1,Abdullah Mohammad Saad,2,About Elly,1,Above the Clouds,1,Adam J. Symchuk,21,Adam John,6,Address Unknown,1,Aditya Vikram Sengupta,1,Adriana Rosati,18,Age of Innocence,1,Age of Shadows,1,Aihara Hiro,1,Akihiko Shiota,1,Akihiro Toda,1,Akio Fujimoto,1,Akira Ikeda,2,Akira Kurosawa,1,Akiyuki Shinbo,2,Alan Mak,1,Ale Amout,1,Alex Oost,1,Alexander Knoth,1,Ali Asghar Vadayeh Kheiri,1,Along with the Gods: The Two Worlds,1,Ambiguous Places,2,Amir Masoud Aghababeian,1,Amir Muhammad,2,Amitabh Reza,1,Anand Singh,3,Andrew Thayne,5,Andy Lau,1,Andy Willis,1,Anime,3,Animesh Aich,1,Ann Hui,1,Anna Bliss,3,Anqi Ju,1,Anshul Chauhan,2,Anthony Pun,1,Antiporno,1,Anurag Basu,1,Anysay Keola,1,Apprentice,1,Aqerat,2,Arang,1,Ariyuki Shinbo,1,Armour of God,1,Arrow,4,Art Film Fest Kosice,1,Article Films,3,Asghar Farhadi,1,Asha Jaoar Majhe,1,Asian Classics,27,Ask the Sexpert. India,1,Aya Hanabusa,1,Aya Itabe,1,Aynabaji,1,Baasansuren Nyamdavaa,1,Bad Poetry Tokyo,4,Badrul Hisham,1,Badrul Hisham Ismail,1,BAMY,2,Bangkok Nites,1,Bangladesh,8,Banjong Pisanthanakun,1,Banmei Takahashi,1,Battle of Memories,1,Battleship Island,1,Before We Vanish,2,Behind the Camera,1,Belgium,1,Ben Stykuc,5,Bengal,1,BFI,1,Bhutan,2,Big Tits Dragon,1,Billy Joe,2,Black,1,Blade of the Immortal,1,Bleeding Steel,1,Bloodrunner Zero,1,Bloody Muscle Builder in Hell,1,Bluebeard,1,Bollywood,1,Boo Junfeng,1,Born Bone Born,1,Branded to Kill,2,Breathless,1,Brothers in Heaven,1,Bunny Drop,1,Burma,1,Burning Birds,2,Bystanders,1,Byun Sung-Hyun,1,Call Boy,1,Cambodia,4,Camera Japan,10,Cannes Film Festival,5,Chang,1,Chang Zheng,1,Cheng Cheng Films,1,Children Heaven,1,China,43,Chinese Policy Institute,6,Chinese Shadows,2,Chinese Visual Festival,1,Cho Keun-Hyun,1,Choi Jin-ho,1,Choi Jin-won,1,Choi Min-sik,1,Chris Berry,1,Chu Yuan,1,Chung Ji-young,1,Chungking Express,1,Close-Knit,1,Coffeemates,1,Colette Balmain,7,Colour of the Game,1,Competition,2,Confessions,1,Contact Info,1,Creative Visions: Hong Kong Cinema,1,Criminal City,1,Crocodile,1,Crosscurrent,1,Crows Zero,1,Cyrano Agency,1,Daguerreotype,1,Daigo Matsui,1,Daihachi Yoshida,1,Daisuke Gotô,2,Daisuke Miura,1,Daisuke Miyazaki,3,Dante Lam,1,David Chew,5,David Chew.,1,David Shin,1,Davy Chou,1,Dawn Wind in My Poncho,1,Ddongpari,1,Dead Friend,1,Dead Sushi,1,Deadly Outlaw: Rekka,1,Dechen Roden,1,Deepak Rauniyar,1,Derek Hui,1,Destruction Babies,1,Diary of June,1,Digger,1,Ding Shen,1,Ding Sheng,2,Dismembered,1,Documentaries,18,Documentary,3,Doenjang,1,Don Anelli,23,Dong Yue,1,Double Life,1,Dr. Heo,1,drama,1,Duelist,1,East Winds Film Festival,1,Edmund Yeo,4,Educating Yuna,1,Eiji Uchida,2,Emmanuel Horlaza,1,Enter the Warriors Gate,1,Erotic Diary of an Office Lady,1,Eureka,7,Evil and the Mask,1,Exploitation,34,Explosion,1,Fabricated City,1,Far East Film Festival,7,Fatal Countdown: Reset,1,Fathers,1,Faye Wong,1,Features,23,Feautures,1,FEFF20,1,Fel,8,Festivals,13,Filmddo,1,Filmdoo,17,Fireworks,1,Fireworks Should We See It from the Side or the Bottom?,2,Five Flavors Festival,3,Five Flavours,1,Five Flavours Festival,5,Flying Fish,1,Forgetting Vietnam,1,France,1,Fraser Elliott,1,From Vegas to Macau III,1,Fujian Blue,1,Fullmetal Alchemist,1,Fumihiko Sori,1,Funeral Parade of Roses,1,Funuke Show Some Love,1,Fuyuhiko Nishi,1,Giddens Ko,1,Gillian Anderson,1,God of War,1,Godzilla: Planet of the Monsters,1,Golden Horse Awards,1,Golden Slumbers,1,Good -Bye Silence,2,Gordon Chan,1,Goro Miyazaki,1,Guo Jian-yong,2,Han Jie,1,Hanagatami,1,Hanging Garden,1,Hanuman,1,Hapkido,1,Hashiguchi Takaaki,1,Haunters,1,HBO,2,Heart Attack,1,Helldriver,1,Helsinki Cine Aasia Festival 2018,3,Her Own Address,1,Herman Yau,1,Heung-Boo: The Revolutionist,1,Hidden Gems,50,Hideo Sakaki,1,High-Kick Girl,1,Hindi,1,Hiro Aihara,1,Hirobumi Watanabe,2,Hirokazu Koreeda,4,Hiroshi Ando,1,Hiroshi Shoji,1,Hiroshi Teshigahara,1,Hiroyuki Seshita,1,HKETO,1,Ho Yuhang,1,Holy Island,1,Honeygiver Among the Dogs,1,Hong Ki-Seon,1,Hong Kong,10,Hong Kong Godfather,1,Hong Sang-soo,1,Hongkong,1,Horror,3,Huang Fend,1,Huang Huang,1,Hwang Dong-Hyuk,1,I Am A Hero,1,I Saw the Devil,1,I Wish,1,I-Lin Liu,8,ICA,3,Icarus Films,4,IFFLA,3,IFFR,2,Im Kyeong-soo,1,Imran Firdaus,1,Imran Fridaus,1,In this Corner of the World,3,Indonesia,5,Initiation Love,1,International Chinese Film Festival,1,International Film Festival Rotterdam,9,Interview,2,Interviews,35,Intimate Confessions of a Chinese Courtesan,1,Inugami,1,Inuyashiki,1,Iran,8,Ishmael Bernal,1,Isora Iwakiri,1,J.P. Sniadecki,1,Jackie Chan,5,Jagat,1,Jagga Jasoos,1,James Mudge,1,Jang Chang-won,1,Jang Hoon,1,Jang Joon-hwan,1,Japan,195,Japan Cuts,15,Japan Film Festival Australia,1,Japan Filmfest Hamburg,1,Japan Foundation Touring Programme,3,Japan the Emperor and the Army,1,Japan. Reviews,1,Japanese Film Festival Australia,2,Jeong Jae-eun,1,Jeong Yun-Cheol,1,Jeonju International Film Festival,1,Jess Teong,1,Jesse V. Johnson,1,Jia Zhangke,1,Jimmy Henderson,2,Jin Xingzheng.,1,Jithin K Mohan,1,Joe Odagiri,2,Johnnie To,1,Johnny Ma,1,Joko Anwar,1,Jonathan Li,1,Jonathan Wilson,6,Jonathan Yi,1,Joo Ji-hong,1,Journey of the Tortoise,1,Joy of Man's Desiring,1,July Jung,1,Jun Ichikawa,1,Jun Tanaka,3,Jung Byung-gil,1,Jung Sik,1,Jung Yoon-suk,1,Junichi Kajioka,1,Junpei Mizusaki,1,Justice in Northwest,1,K-dramas,12,Kaasan Mom’s Life,1,Kam Ka-Wai,1,Kaneto Shindo,1,Kang Je-gyu,1,Kang Yoon-Sung,2,Kara Hui,1,Katsuya Tomita,1,Katsuyuki Motohiro,1,kdrama,1,Ke Guo,1,Keep Calm and Be a Superstar,1,Kei Chikaura,1,Kei Horie,1,Kei Ishikawa,1,Keishimi Oto,1,Ken and Kazu,1,Kengo Yagawa,1,Kenichi Ugaba,1,Kenichi Ugana,1,Kenichi Watanabe,1,Kentaro Hagiwara,1,Kfc,1,Kill me,1,Killing Beauty,1,Kim Bong-han,1,Kim Eun-hee,1,Kim Hong-seon,1,Kim Hong-Sun,1,Kim Hyun-seok,1,Kim Jee-woon,3,Kim Jin-Mook,1,Kim Jong-Kwan,1,Kim Joo-hwan,1,Kim Ki-duk,4,Kim Kih-hoon,1,Kim Min Su kII,1,Kim Min-suk,1,Kim Tae-kyeong,1,Kim Whee,1,Kim Yong-hwa,1,Kingyo,2,Kirti Raj Singh,1,Kiss me,1,Kiyoshi Kurosawa,5,Kôbun Shizuno,1,Koji Fukada,1,Koji Wakamatsu,1,Komiya Masatetsu,1,Kon Ichikawa,2,Konrad Aderer,1,Korea,1,korean drama,1,Krzysztof Pietrzak,1,Kun-Yu Lai,2,Kwak Kyung-taek,2,Kyoko Miyake,1,Kyriacos Kyriacou,2,Lady Snowblood,2,Laos,2,Laughing Under the Clouds,1,Le Binh Giang,1,Le Bình Giang,1,Leandro E. Seta,1,Lebanon,1,Lee An-gyu,1,Lee Byeong-Hun,1,Lee Byung-Hun,1,Lee Chang-Hee,1,Lee Je-Yong,1,Lee Joo-young,1,Lee Jung-sun,1,Lee Kwang-kuk,1,Lee Myung-se,1,Lee Sa-rang,1,Lee Seo-goon,1,Leo Zhang,1,Leon Lai,1,Leste Chen,1,Leung Wing-Fai,1,Ley Lines,1,Li Ruijun,1,Like Father,1,Like Son,1,Lim Sang-yoon,1,Lists,11,Little Big Soldier,1,Little Forest,1,Live from Dhaka,1,Live Up To Your Name,1,Loi Bao,1,London Korean Film Festival,1,Los Angeles Indian Festival,3,Love,1,Love and Other Cults,1,Lovers Are Wet,1,Lowlife Love,1,Lyberis,3,Mad Tiger,1,Mad World,1,Madman,2,Mahde Hasan,1,Mai Chan's Daily Life: The Movie,1,Majid Majidi,1,Makoto Shinkai,1,Malaysia,10,Mama,1,Mamoru Hosoda,1,Manny Araneta,1,March Comes in like a Lion,1,Maria Georgiou,23,Mark Gallagher,1,Mary Jirmanus Saba,1,Masaaki Yuasa,2,Masaharu Take,1,Masakazu Sugita,1,Masaki Adachi,1,Masanori Tominaga,1,Masaru Konume,1,Masato Harada,2,Masatoshi Kurakata,1,Matt Cooper,14,Matthew D. Johnson,1,Matthias Hoene,1,Maundy Thursday,1,Memoir of a Murderer,1,Mermaid,1,Michael Haertlein,1,Midi Z,1,Midnight Runners,1,Midori Impuls,4,Milk the Maid,1,Minamata: The Victims and Their World,1,Minoru Kunizawa,1,Miss Zombie,1,Miwa Nishikawa,1,Mohammad Rasoulof,1,Mohammad-Reza Lotfi,1,Mon Mon Mon Monsters,1,Mongolia,2,Moon Lovers,1,Mototsugu Watanabe,4,Mountains May Depart,1,Mourning Forest,1,Movie,1,Moving,1,Mr. Socrates,1,Mrs Fang,1,Mrs K,1,Mumon: The Land of Stealth,1,My Dad and Mr Ito,1,My Hero Chihiro,1,Myanmar,1,Nah Hyeon,1,Namiya,1,Nanachan,1,Naoko Ogigami,1,Naomi Kawase,3,Naosuke Kurosawa,1,Naoyuki Tomomatsu,3,Nawapol Thamrongrattanarit,1,Neko Atsume House,1,Nepal,1,Neuchâtel International Fantastic Film Festival,1,Never Ending Blue,1,New Neighbor,2,New World,1,New York Indian Film Festival,1,News,13,Nicholas Poly,3,Night Bus,1,Night is Short,1,Night is Short Walk on Girl,1,Nikola Cekic,1,Niwatsukino Norihiro,1,Noboru Iguchi,1,Nobuhiko Obayashi,2,Nobuhiro Yamashita,2,Nobuo Nakagawa,1,Nobuyuki Takeuchi,2,Noise,2,Non-fiction Diary,1,Noriaki Tsuchimoto,1,Norman England,2,North Korea,1,Nurse Diary: Beast Afternoon,1,NYAFF,9,Nyamdavaa Baasansuren,1,NYIFF,1,Odd Obsession,1,Oh In-Chun,1,Old Boy,2,Old Stone,1,Old-School Kung-Fu Fest,1,Omar Rasya Joenoes,3,On The Line Festival,3,One Cut of the Dead,1,One Man's China,1,Operation Red Sea,1,Ophilia,1,Ordinary Person,1,Orson McClellan Mochizuki,1,Osaka Asian Film Festival,7,Osamu Sato,1,Our Happy time,1,Outrage Coda,1,Over the Fence,1,Pai Kau,1,Palatpol Mingpornpichit,2,Panos,1,Panos Kotzathanasis,145,Park Chan-wook,2,Park Hee-joon,1,Park Hoon-Jung,3,Park In-je,1,Park Ki- hyung,1,Park Kwang-hyun,1,Parkpoom Wongpoom,1,Party Round the Globe,1,Passage of Life,1,Patrick Hofmeister,71,Pedro Morata,3,Peerachai Kerdsint,1,Pen-Ek Ratanaruang,1,Peng Xiaolian,1,Pepe Diokno,1,Peque Gallaga,1,Perfect Blue,2,Peter Chan,1,Phanumad Disattha,1,Philippines,2,Pieter - Jan Van Haecke,3,Pieter-Jan Van Haecke,7,Pink Eiga,14,PinkEiga.TV,6,pinku eiga,1,Poet on a Business Trip,1,Poolside Man,1,Press Release,2,Proshoon Rahmaan,2,Psychic,1,Pumpkin and Mayonnaise,1,Queen of Triads,1,Rabbit and Lizard,1,Radiance,1,Railway Sleepers,1,Rainy Dog,1,Raja Mukhriz,1,Randy Mckenzie,4,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead,1,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead 2,1,Ravine of Goodbye,1,Real,1,Red Persimmons,1,Rei Sakamoto,1,Reipu zonbi: Lust of the dead 3,1,Review,3,Reviews,118,Reviews.,2,Riri Riza,1,River of Exploding Durians,2,Robin Weng,1,Roger Lee,1,Ronja,1,Russia,1,RV: Resurrected Victims,1,Ryoo Seung-wan,1,Ryu Kaneda,1,Ryuki,1,Ryutaro Ninomiya,2,S. Korea,62,S.Korea,1,Saayak Santra,2,Sabu,2,Sade Sato,1,San Diego Asian Film Festival,4,Sanjeewa Pushpakumara,2,Sankha Ray,6,Satan's Slaves,1,Satoru Hirohara,1,Satoshi Kon,3,Say Yes,1,Sayandeep Bandyopadhyay,2,Scarlet Heart,1,Score,1,Sea Fog,1,Seijun Suzuki,3,Sekigahara,1,Sexy S.W.A.T. Team,1,Shake Rattle and Roll,1,Shanjhey Kumar Perumal,1,Shaw Brothers,1,She Remembers He Forgets,1,She's the Boss,1,Shift,2,Shigeru Umebayashi,1,Shikhar Verma,3,Shikhar Verna,3,Shim Sung-Bo,1,Shinichi Fukazawa,1,Shinichiro Ueda,1,Shinji Iwai,1,Shinji Somai,2,Shinji Sômai,1,Shinjuku Swan,1,Shinjuku Triad Society,1,Shinobi no Kuni,2,Shinsuke Ogawa,1,Shinsuke Sato,2,Shinya Tsukamoto,2,Shôhei Imamura,1,Shoot for the Contents,1,Shorts,9,Shotaro Kobayashi,1,Shu Qi,1,Shuna Iijima,1,Shutter,1,Siddiq Ahamed,1,Sidi Saleh,1,Signature,1,Silver Spleen,2,Singapore,1,Sinophone,1,Sion Sono,6,Sixth Sense Hooker,1,Sleep Curse,1,Sogo Ishii,2,Soichi Umezawa,1,Solanin,1,Sompot Chidgasompongse,2,Song Hae-sung,1,Song Kang-ho,1,Song of the Week,19,Sopawan Boonnimitra,1,South Korea,17,Sri Lanka,3,Steel Rain,1,Stephen Chow,1,Stephen Fung,1,Still the Water,1,Strange Circus,1,Studio Ghibli,1,StudioCanal,4,Subenja Pongkorn,1,Suffering of Ninko,1,Suicide Club,1,Sukita: The Shoot Must Go On,1,Sun-ho Cho,1,Sunao Katabuchi,3,Sung-hong Kim,1,Sunk Into the Womb,1,Susumu Hirasawa,1,Sweating the Small Stuff,2,Tadashi Nagayama,1,Tae Guk Gi,1,Tag,1,Taiwan,1,Takaaki Hashiguchi,1,Takahiro Miko,1,Takahisa Zeze,1,Takao Nakano,1,Takaomi Ogata,3,Takashi Miike,9,Take Care of My Cat,1,Takeshi Kaneshiro,1,Takeshi Kitano,1,Takuro Nakamura,2,Tatara Samurai,1,Tatsuhi Omori,1,Tatsumi Kumashiro,1,Teppei Nakamura,1,Tetsuo the Iron Man,1,Tetsuya Mariko,1,Tetsuya Nakashima,1,Thailand,11,That's It,1,The Adventurers,1,The Bad,1,The Boy and the Beast,3,The boy from Ipanema,1,The Brink,1,The Chase,1,The Crawler in the Attic,1,The Crazy Family,1,The Day After,1,The Discloser,1,The Dollhouse,1,The elephant and the sea,2,The Executioner,1,The Forest Whispers,1,The Forsaken Land,1,The Fortress,1,The Good,1,The Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles,1,The Inugami Family,1,The Iron Ministry,1,The Isthmus,1,The Kid from the Big Apple,1,The King of Pigs,1,The Last Executioner,1,The Looming Storm,1,The Lowlife,1,The Man Without a Map,1,The Mayor,1,The Merciless,1,The Mermaid,1,The Muse,1,The Naked Island,1,The Name,1,The Night of the Earthquake,1,The Outlaws,1,The Prison,1,The recipe,1,The Road Home,1,The Road to Mandalay,1,the Robber's Daughter,1,The Room,1,The Sacrament,1,The Salesman,1,The Shoot Must Go On,1,The Snow King,1,The Sower,2,The Story of the Disappearance of Maryam,1,The Strange Saga of Hiroshi the Freeloading Sex Machine,1,The Suicide Chain,1,The Swindlers,1,The Table,1,The Third Murder,1,The Thousand Faces of Dunjia,1,The Tiger: An Old Hunter's Tale,1,The Tokyo Night Sky is Always the Densest Shade of Blue,1,The Tooth and the Nail,1,The Vanished,1,The Villainess,1,The Weird,1,Third WIndow,1,This Is Not What I Expected,1,Three Sisters,1,Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan,1,Tokyo Ghoul,1,Tokyo Heaven,1,Tokyo Idols,1,Tokyo Vampire Hotel,1,Tolerance Film Festival,1,Tom Waller,2,Tony Leung,1,Tony Takitani,1,Toronto International Film Festival,1,Toshiaki Toyoda,2,Toshio Matsumoto,1,Toshiya Fujita,1,Toshiyuki Teruya,1,Traces of Sin,1,Trailers,76,Train to Busan,1,Tran Ham,1,Trinh T. Minh-Ha,3,Triple Threat,1,True Fiction,1,Twenty Two,1,Twilight Dinner,1,Twitch: You Are My Toy,1,Typhoon Club,1,Udine,1,Unbowed,1,Uncovered,1,V.I.P.,1,Vaishali Sinha,1,Vampire Clay,1,Vampire Cleanup Department,1,Vannaphone Sitthirath,1,various,2,Vesoul International Film Festival,4,Victor Vu,1,Vietnam,4,Vikram Zushi,1,Vimukthi Jayasundara,1,Vincent Kok,1,Violated Angels,1,Visitor Q,1,Vital,1,Vitaly Mansky,1,Voyage to Terengganu,1,Walk on Girl,1,Walking Past the Future,1,Wang Bing,2,Wang Lung-wei,1,Warriors of the Dawn,1,We Make Antiques,1,Wellgo USA,1,West North West,2,What a Man Wants,1,Whispering Corridors,1,White Sun,1,Whore Angel,1,Wiman Rizkidarajat,1,Wine War,1,Without Memory,1,Wol-Ha: Very Bad Moon Rising,1,Woman of the Lake,1,Won Shin-Yeon,1,Wong Jing,2,Woo Ming Jin,1,Wrath of Silence,1,Xaisongkham Induangchanthy,1,Xin Yukun,1,Yamato (California),3,Yang Chao,1,Yang Ik-june,1,Yang Jong-hyeon,1,Yang Woo-seok,1,Yeon Sang-ho,2,Yim Soon-rye,1,Yiu-wai Chu,1,Yoshihiro Nakamura,2,Yoshihiro Nishimura,1,Yoshinari Nishikori,1,Yoshishige Yoshida,1,Yoshitaka Mori,1,Yoshiyuki Kishi,1,Yosuke Takeuchi,2,Yotsuya kaidan,1,You Losers!,1,Your Name,1,Yu Aoi,2,Yu Irie,1,Yuen Woo-ping,1,Yûji Tajiri,2,Yujiro Harumoto,1,Yuki Tanada,1,Yukihiko Tsutsumi,2,Yusaku Matsumoto,2,Yutaka Ikejima,3,Yuya Ishii,1,Zakka Films,2,Zen,1,Zhang Yimou,1,Zoo,1,Zuairijah Mou,1,
ltr
item
Asian Film Vault: The Death of Chinese Independent Cinema?
The Death of Chinese Independent Cinema?
Chris Berry answers a very significant question
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EMwwRcjBTtA/WZ2vxt6PHjI/AAAAAAAANUI/YU6EaGTGt106QiExeJ_hkVSN7gRQ0hRjACLcBGAs/s320/berry.jpg
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EMwwRcjBTtA/WZ2vxt6PHjI/AAAAAAAANUI/YU6EaGTGt106QiExeJ_hkVSN7gRQ0hRjACLcBGAs/s72-c/berry.jpg
Asian Film Vault
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/2017/08/the-death-of-chinese-independent-cinema.html
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/2017/08/the-death-of-chinese-independent-cinema.html
true
3944800929692556231
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS CONTENT IS PREMIUM Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy