Recent Trends in the Distribution and Exhibition of Chinese Language Films in the UK Cinema Market

An analysis of the penetration of Chinese film in the UK

Written by Fraser Elliott and Andy Willis. The article was initially published on the webpage of the China Policy Institute.

Until recently, the distribution and exhibition of Chinese language films in the UK had followed a familiar pattern for a number of decades: Like most subtitled foreign language cinema, they were bought by distribution companies specialising in arthouse fare, who would subsequently release them onto the specialised and independent cinema circuit. Here, they would vie with films from established arthouse providers in Europe, such as France and Italy, as well as other countries, such as Japan, who have traditionally found favour with cineastes. In this sector, each film released struggles to find their share of the small UK audience that appreciates global cinema.

Whilst the independent and arthouse circuit has been the fate of many Chinese language films, there have been historical moments when they found a wider audience in the UK. Two notable moments when this took place were around the kung fu craze of the 1970s, which saw Hong Kong and Taiwanese martial arts films find their way onto mainstream UK cinema circuits. These releases were usually in versions dubbed into English, and showcased stars such as Bruce Lee, Jimmy Wang Yu and David Chiang. Later in the decade, following the death of Bruce Lee, these stars were joined by a range of Lee lookalikes, for example Bruce Li, Bruce Le and Bruce Laing, and even Jackie Chan as the "New Fist of Fury" (1976), who were sold to audiences that wanted a ready replacement once their hero had died. These releases would often appear on double bills with other popular or exploitation films of the time.


The other notable cycle of theatrical releases for Chinese language films happened in the early 2000s. This followed the cross-over success of "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon", which found favour on both the arthouse and mainstream cinema circuits following its UK release in early 2001. As a result, a number of broadly similar wuxia epics were released into the UK market with an eye on crossover mainstream audiences as well as the traditional arthouse ones. These included Zhang Yimou’s trilogy of Hero (2002), which was released in the UK in 2004, House of Flying Daggers (2004), released in the UK in late 2004, and The Curse of the Golden Flower (2006), released into the UK market in April 2007.

Since then, occasional films, such as those of feted directors such as Jia Zhangke, Taiwan’s Hou Hsiao-hsien and Hong Kong’s Wong Kar Wai have been acquired for screenings in UK cinemas. However, until recently, there has been no consistent trend. What is significant is that the recent reappearance of Chinese language films in UK cinemas has taken a different approach than previous instances: The main difference is that rather than appealing to traditional audiences for foreign language films or finding a more fan driven cinema-goer, who consumes genre derived titles such as Hong Kong action films, the recent surge in Chinese language films has been focused on a new, developing audience mainly drawn from the growing Mandarin speaking diaspora. In appealing to this audience, the main distribution companies involved have used a different model than previous attempts to find audiences for Chinese language films in the UK.

This model is one that seems to closely follow that used to release popular Hindi, or Bollywood, films into the UK market. What marked this approach is the fact that it targeted audiences within the South Asian diaspora in the UK, ignoring the traditional, subtitled foreign language cinema circuit. In doing so, distributors such as Eros Entertainment chose to release their titles into the popular multiplex cinemas. This approach began to pay dividends when "Dil Se" (1998) became the first ‘Bollywood’ film to enter the UK top 10 upon its release. Since then, a range of popular Indian films have consistently made that top 10, and in doing so revealed that designing a release strategy around a diaspora audience can be highly profitable.


One key aspect of this strategy is to release films in Britain on the same day that they are released in their domestic market through a method called “day-and-date” releasing. One of the first meaningful examples of this approach in relation to Chinese language films came with "Lost in Hong Kong: (2015), a film from Mainland China that hit UK cinema screens in September 2015. The film, a spiritual sequel to the hugely profitable blockbuster-comedy Lost in Thailand (2011), was brought to the UK by the Los Angeles based distributor Asia Releasing, who screened it in a number of ODEON and Vue venues across England and Scotland in the hopes of appealing to the large community of Chinese students attending British universities.

Released on September 25th, 2015, "Lost in Hong Kong" arrived on UK screens on the exact same date as in Mainland China making it something of an ‘event’. In doing so, Asia Releasing worked around a number of potential problems. First and foremost, day-and-date releases like this help combat piracy: releasing a film in Britain months after it first screened in Mainland China gives potentially interested audiences a long time to see the film online through various illegal (and legal) avenues – a day-and-date release overcomes this risk and works to attract audiences to cinema screenings. Second, until very recently, the film market on the Chinese Mainland has been booming with increasing production levels and box-office records seemingly broken on a monthly basis. Releasing a film day-and-date with Mainland China helps distributors capitalise on the zeitgeist circulating around the latest blockbusters within diasporic communities.

Much like Bollywood productions, and a smaller number of popular Polish language films which have appeared on multiplex screens recently, these films are rarely, if ever, promoted outside of their target diasporic audience. Magnum Films, for example, is the distributor who acquired "League of Gods" (2016) and the Chinese remake of "My Best Friend’s Wedding" (2016), which is currently (august 2016) on theatrical release across the UK. It has directly targeted its audiences through Facebook and Instagram as well as the Chinese social media platforms WeChat and Weibo. While Magnum Films, alongside Asia Releasing and Sony Pictures, is releasing Chinese-language films on an almost weekly basis at the time of writing, hardly any of these are marketed to a general UK audience.

Despite their relative invisibility to those not in-the-know, this appears to be a lucrative strategy for distributors. In February, an important time for the Chinese film industry during the New Year celebrations, the UK was treated to "From Vegas to Macau 3" (2016), "The Monkey King 2" (2016), and "The Mermaid" (2016) in quick succession. In its first week, "The Mermaid" earned the second highest site average of any film on general release – beaten only by Marvel’s "Deadpool" – and has since gone on to see a home media release, presumably due to the crossover appeal of its director, Stephen Chow, whose "Kung Fu Hustle" (2004) had been released theatrically in the UK in 2005.


It is important to remember that this recent trend is closely related to the booming film market in Mainland China and does not represent the opening up of all regional Chinese productions to British cinema screens. There have only been a handful of Hong Kong or Taiwan films released by Asia Releasing or Magnum Films, and they have always been either co-productions with companies in the PRC, or films with an expected Mainland audience. Notable examples are Hong Kong-China co-production "Cold War 2", which topped the Mainland box office, and Taiwan’s "Our Times" (2015) which stands as the most profitable Taiwan film released in Mainland China to date.

This new trend, therefore, represents a significant increase in theatrically released Chinese language films in the UK. What is particularly notable is that like the Bollywood films which have found profitable UK distribution, most have come from a category of popular commercial productions, which have struggled in the past to find international audiences, rather than titles that have appeared at international film festivals. However, with the rapid changes taking place within the Mainland Chinese cinema market, it will be interesting to see if this burst of activity regarding the distribution and exhibition of Chinese language films will lead to as sustained a presence in the UK market as the popular products from the Indian film industry have, or whether it will be just another brief cycle.

Fraser Elliott is a PhD candidate at the University of Manchester and Andy Willis is a Reader in Film Studies at the University of Salford. As members of the Chinese Film Forum UK, both are involved in programming Chinese language films in the UK. Image Credit: CC by Teresa Cheely/flickr

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Johnson,1,Matthias Hoene,1,Maundy Thursday,1,Mayaanadhi,1,Mayurakshi,1,Meghe Dhaka Tara,1,Memoir of a Murderer,1,Merantau,1,Mermaid,1,Miaoyan Zhang,1,Michael Haertlein,1,Michelle Hung Tsz-ching,2,Midi Z,1,Midnight Runners,1,Midori Impuls,4,Midori The Camelia Girl,1,Mikhail Red,4,Milk the Maid,1,Minamata: The Victims and Their World,1,Ming-Yeh Rawnsley,1,Minoru Kunizawa,1,Mira Nair,1,Miss Zombie,1,Miwa Nishikawa,2,Mohammad Rasoulof,1,Mohammad-Reza Lotfi,1,Mon Mon Mon Monsters,1,Mong-Hong Chung,2,Mongolia,2,Monika S-r,1,Monologue,1,Moon Lovers,1,Moon So-ri,1,Mototsugu Watanabe,4,Mouly Surya,3,Mountains May Depart,2,Mourning Forest,1,Movie,2,Moving,1,Mr Long,1,Mr. Socrates,1,Mrs Fang,1,Mrs K,2,Mukti Bhawan (Hotel Salvation),1,Mumon: The Land of Stealth,1,Museum,1,My Beloved Yak,1,My Dad and Mr Ito,1,My Heart is that Eternal Rose,1,My Hero Chihiro,1,Myanmar,1,Mystics in Bali,1,Nah Hyeon,1,Namiya,1,Nanachan,1,Nandita Roy,1,Naoko Ogigami,5,Naomi Kawase,3,Naosuke Kurosawa,1,Naoyuki Tomomatsu,3,Nawapol Thamrongrattanarit,2,Neeraj Ghaywan,1,Neko Atsume House,1,Neomanila,2,Nepal,1,Nervous Translation,1,Neuchâtel International Fantastic Film Festival,1,Never Ending Blue,1,New Neighbor,2,New World,1,New York Indian Film Festival,1,News,13,Newton,1,Nicholas Poly,4,Night Bus,1,Night is Short,1,Night is Short Walk on Girl,1,Night of the Felines,1,Nikhil Allug,1,Nikkatsu,1,Nikola Cekic,1,Nila Madhab Panda,2,Ninja Pussy Cat,1,Nirbaak,1,Niwatsukino Norihiro,1,No Where,2,No. 1 Chung Ying Street,2,Noboru Iguchi,1,Noboru Tanaka,1,Noboru Uguchi,1,Nobuhiko Obayashi,2,Nobuhiro Yamashita,2,Nobuo Nakagawa,2,Nobuyuki Takeuchi,2,Noise,2,Non-fiction Diary,1,Norbu,1,Noriaki Tsuchimoto,1,Norihiro Niwatsukino,1,Norjmaa,1,Norman England,2,North Korea,2,Now Here,2,Nurse Diary: Beast Afternoon,1,NYAFF,34,Nyamdavaa Baasansuren,1,NYIFF,1,Odd Obsession,1,Oh In-Chun,1,Old Boy,2,Old Stone,1,Old-School Kung-Fu Fest,3,Omar Rasya Joenoes,4,On the Job,1,On The Line Festival,3,On the Run,1,One Cut of the Dead,1,One Man's China,1,Onibaba,1,Operation Red Sea,1,Ophilia,1,Ordinary Person,1,Orson McClellan Mochizuki,1,Osaka Asian Film Festival,12,Osamu Sato,1,Our Happy time,1,Our Time Will Come,1,Outrage Coda,1,Over the Fence,1,Oxhide,1,Oxhide II,1,Oxide Pang,1,Pad Man,1,Padmavati,2,Pai Kau,2,Palatpol Mingpornpichit,2,Pale Flower,1,Panos,1,Panos Kotzathanasis,293,Paresh Mokashi,1,Park Chan-wook,2,Park Hee-joon,1,Park Hoon-Jung,3,Park In-je,1,Park Ki- hyung,1,Park Kwang-hyun,1,Parkpoom Wongpoom,1,Party Round the Globe,1,Passage of Life,1,Past and Future,1,Patrick Hofmeister,72,Patrick Tam,1,Pedro Morata,10,Peerachai Kerdsint,1,Pelden Dorji,1,Pema "Tintin" Tshering,1,Pema Tshering,1,Pen-Ek Ratanaruang,2,Peng Xiaolian,1,Pengfei,2,Pepe Diokno,1,Peque Gallaga,1,Perfect Blue,2,Peter Chan,1,Peter Chen,1,Phanumad Disattha,1,Philippines,19,Pieter - Jan Van Haecke,4,Pieter-Jan Van Haecke,8,Pink Eiga,15,PinkEiga.TV,6,pinku eiga,1,Pinneyum,1,Poet on a Business Trip,1,Poolside Man,1,Pop Aye,1,Posto,1,Prakasan,1,Press Release,2,Priya Giri Desai,1,Prophecy,1,Proshoon Rahmaan,2,Psychic,1,Pumpkin and Mayonnaise,1,Queen of Triads,1,R.Balki,1,Rabbit and Lizard,1,Radiance,1,Rage. Lee Sang-il,1,Rahul Jain,1,Railway Sleepers,1,Rainy Dog,1,Raja Mukhriz,1,Rajkumar Gupta,1,Ram,1,Ram Gopal Varma,1,Randy Mckenzie,4,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead,1,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead 2,1,Ravine of Goodbye,1,Re:Born,1,Real,1,Realism,1,Red Beard,1,Red Persimmons,1,Rei Sakamoto,1,Reipu zonbi: Lust of the dead 3,1,Resistance at Tule Lake,1,Respeto,2,Resurrection,1,Revenge: A love story,1,Review,9,Reviews,306,Reviews.,2,Reviews. Panos Kotzathanasis,1,Rima Das,1,Riri Riza,3,Ritwik Ghatak,2,River of Exploding Durians,2,River's Edge,3,Robin Weng,1,Roger Lee,2,Roman Porno,1,Ronja,1,Rouge,1,Rouven Linnarz,1,Roya Sadat,2,Running on Karma,1,Russia,1,RV: Resurrected Victims,1,Ryoo Seung-wan,2,Ryota Sakamaki,1,Ryu Kaneda,1,Ryuki,1,Ryutaro Ninomiya,2,S. Korea,74,S.Korea,2,Saayak Santra,9,Sabrina Baracetti,1,Sabu,4,Sade Sato,1,Salaam Bombay,1,Samui Song,1,San Diego Asian Film Festival,17,San Diego Film Festival,2,Sanjay Leela Bhansali,2,Sanjeewa Pushpakumara,2,Sankha Ray,33,Sarita Khurana,1,Satan's Slaves,3,Satoru Hirohara,1,Satoshi Kon,3,Satya,1,Satyajit Ray,2,Say Yes,1,Sayandeep Bandyopadhyay,6,Scarlet Heart,1,Score,1,Sea Fog,1,Seijun Suzuki,3,Sekigahara,1,Serga Mathang,1,Sexy S.W.A.T. Team,1,Sha Po Lang,1,Shake Rattle and Roll,1,Shakti Sounder Rajan,1,Shanjhey Kumar Perumal,1,Shanker Raman,1,Shaw Brothers,2,She Remembers He Forgets,2,She's the Boss,1,Shehjar,1,Shiboprosad Mukherjee,1,Shift,2,Shigeru Umebayashi,1,Shikhar Verma,13,Shikhar Verna,3,Shim Sung-Bo,1,Shinichi Fukazawa,1,Shinichiro Ueda,1,Shinji Iwai,1,Shinji Somai,2,Shinji Sômai,1,Shinjuku Swan,1,shinjuku Swan II,1,Shinjuku Triad Society,1,Shinobi no Kuni,2,Shinsuke Ogawa,1,Shinsuke Sato,2,Shinya Tsukamoto,4,Shireen Seno,2,Shirley Abraham,1,Shock Wave,1,Shôhei Imamura,1,Shoot for the Contents,1,Shorts,9,Shotaro Kobayashi,1,Shu Qi,1,Shuna Iijima,1,Shunji Iwai,2,Shutter,1,Shuttle Life,2,Shyam Ramsay,1,Siddiq Ahamed,1,Sidharth Bharathan,1,Sidi Saleh,1,Signature,1,Silent Mist,1,Silver Spleen,2,Singapore,3,Singh Anand,1,Singing Chen,1,Sinophone,1,Sion Sono,10,Siti,1,Sixth Sense Hooker,1,Slavemen,1,Sleep Curse,1,Small Talk,2,Smriti Mundhra,1,Sogo Ishii,2,Soichi Umezawa,1,Solanin,1,Solitude,1,Solo,1,Someone To Talk To,1,Sompot Chidgasompongse,2,Song Hae-sung,1,Song Kang-ho,1,Song of the Week,22,Sopawan Boonnimitra,1,Sopon Sakdapisit,1,Soul,1,Soul Mate,1,SoulMate,2,South Korea,24,Sri Lanka,3,Sridevi,1,Srijit Mukherji,8,Stammering Ballad,1,Stanley Kwan,1,Stanley Tong,1,Steel Rain,1,Stephen Chow,1,Stephen Fung,2,Steve James,1,Still the Water,1,Stoneman Murders,1,Story in Taipei,1,Strange Circus,1,Studio Ghibli,1,StudioCanal,4,Subenja Pongkorn,2,Suffering of Ninko,2,Sugihara Survivors: Jewish and Japanese,1,Suicide Club,1,Sukita: The Shoot Must Go On,1,Suman Mukhopadhay,1,Summer Snow,1,Sun-ho Cho,1,Sunao Katabuchi,3,Sunday Beauty Queen,1,Sung-hong Kim,1,Sunk Into the Womb,1,Sushama Deshpande,1,Susumu Hirasawa,1,Sweating the Small Stuff,2,Sylvia Chang,1,Tadashi Nagayama,1,Tae Guk Gi,1,Tag,1,Taiwan,28,Takaaki Hashiguchi,1,Takahide Hori,1,Takahiro Miko,1,Takahisa Zeze,1,Takao Nakano,1,Takaomi Ogata,4,Takashi Miike,10,Take Care of My Cat,1,Take Me to the Moon,1,Take Off,1,Takeo Kikuchi,2,Takeshi Kaneshiro,1,Takeshi Kitano,1,Takuro Nakamura,2,Talop Wangchuk,1,Tamil,4,Tamura Senichi,1,Tang Seng Kiat,2,Tanit Jitnukul,1,Tanvir Ashraf,2,Taste of Rice Flower,2,Tatara Samurai,1,Tatsuhi Omori,1,Tatsumi,1,Tatsumi Kumashiro,1,Teddy Soeriaatmadja,1,Teenkahon,1,Teppei Nakamura,1,Tetsuo the Iron Man,1,Tetsuya Mariko,1,Tetsuya Nakashima,1,Thailand,21,Thanatos Drunk,1,That's It,1,The Adventurers,2,The Apology,1,The Bad,1,The Blue Redemption,1,The Boy and the Beast,3,The boy from Ipanema,1,The Brink,1,The Chase,1,The Cinema Travellers,1,The Crawler in the Attic,1,The Crazy Family,1,The Day After,1,The Detective,1,The Discloser,1,The Dollhouse,1,The elephant and the sea,2,The Empty Hands,1,The Executioner,1,The Eye's Dream,1,The Forest Whispers,1,The Forsaken Land,1,The Fortress,1,The Gangster's Daughter,1,The Girl Who Never Knew War,1,The Golden Fortress,1,The Good,1,The Great Buddha+,1,The Great Passage,1,The Hole,1,The Hungry Lion,1,The Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles,2,The Inugami Family,1,The Iron Ministry,1,The Island That All Flow By,1,The Isthmus,1,The Kid from the Big Apple,1,The King of Pigs,1,The Last Executioner,1,The Last Painting,1,The Long Excuse,1,The Looming Storm,1,The Lowlife,1,The Magic Blade,1,The Man Without a Map,1,The Mayor,1,The Merciless,2,The Mermaid,1,The Muse,1,The Naked Island,1,The Name,1,The Net,1,The Night of the Earthquake,1,The Outlaws,1,The Prison,1,The Promise,1,The Raid,1,The Raid 2,1,The recipe,1,The Road Home,1,The Road to Mandalay,1,the Robber's Daughter,1,The Room,1,The Sacrament,1,The Salesman,1,The Seen and Unseen,1,The Shoot Must Go On,1,The Sleep Curse,1,The Snow King,1,The Sower,2,The Story of the Disappearance of Maryam,1,The Strange Saga of Hiroshi the Freeloading Sex Machine,1,The Suicide Chain,1,The Swindlers,1,The Table,1,The Third Murder,1,The Thousand Faces of Dunjia,1,The Tiger: An Old Hunter's Tale,1,The Tokyo Night Sky is Always the Densest Shade of Blue,1,The Tooth and the Nail,1,The Truth Beneath,1,The Vanished,1,The Villainess,3,The Violin Player,1,The Way We Are,1,The Weird,1,The Windmill Palm Grove,1,Theeran Adhigaaram Ondru,1,Third WIndow,1,This Is Not What I Expected,1,This Is Not What I Expected!,1,Thondimuthalum Driksakshiyum,1,Thop Nazareno,1,Three Sisters,1,Three Times,1,Tiffany Hsiung,1,Tik Tik Tik,1,Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan,1,Tokyo Ghoul,1,Tokyo Heaven,1,Tokyo Idols,1,Tokyo Vampire Hotel,1,Tolerance Film Festival,1,Tom Waller,2,Tony Leung,1,Tony Takitani,1,Torico,2,Toronto International Film Festival,1,Toshiaki Toyoda,2,Toshihisa Yokoshima,3,Toshimasha Kobayashi,1,Toshio Matsumoto,1,Toshiya Fujita,1,Toshiyuki Teruya,1,Town in a Lake,1,Traces of Sin,1,Trailers,85,Train to Busan,1,Tran Ham,1,Translated articles,1,Trapped,1,Travellers and Magicians,1,Treb Monteras II,2,Trinh T. Minh-Ha,3,Triple Threat,1,True Fiction,1,Tsai Ming-liang,2,Tulsi Ramsay,1,Twenty Two,1,Twilight Dinner,1,Twitch: You Are My Toy,1,Typhoon Club,1,Udine,3,Ulam Main Dish,1,Um Tae-hwa,1,Uma,1,Unbowed,1,Uncovered,1,Up Down and Sideways,1,V.I.P.,1,Vagabond,1,Vaishali Sinha,1,Vampire Clay,1,Vampire Cleanup Department,2,Vanishing Time A Boy Who Returned,1,Vannaphone Sitthirath,1,various,2,Varnyathil Aashanka,1,Verena Paravel,1,Vesoul International Film Festival,20,Victor Vu,1,Vidya Balan,1,Vietnam,6,Vikram Zushi,1,Vikramaditya Motwane,1,Village Rockstars,1,Vimukthi Jayasundara,1,Vinay Shukla,1,Vincent Kok,1,Violated Angels,1,Visitor Q,1,Vital,1,Vitaly Mansky,1,Vivien Qu,1,Voyage to Terengganu,1,Wai Ka-fai,1,Walk on Girl,1,Walking Past the Future,1,Wang Bing,3,Wang Chao,2,Wang Lung-wei,1,Wang Ming-tai,1,Warriors of the Dawn,2,We Make Antiques,1,Weeds on Fire,1,Wei-Hao Cheng,1,Wellgo USA,2,West North West,2,What a Man Wants,1,What A Wonderful Family 2,1,What Time Is It There?,1,Whispering Corridors,1,Whispering Star,1,White Sun,1,Who Killed Cock Robin,1,Whore Angel,1,Wilson Yip,1,Wiman Rizkidarajat,1,Wine War,1,Winter Vacation,1,With Prisoners,1,Without Memory,1,Wol-Ha: Very Bad Moon Rising,1,Woman of the Lake,1,Won Shin-Yeon,1,Wong Chun,3,Wong Jing,2,Wong Kar-wai,2,Woo Ming Jin,1,Wrath of Silence,1,Xaisongkham Induangchanthy,1,Xin Yukun,1,Xu Bing,1,Ya-che Yang,1,Yamato (California),4,Yan Pak Wing,2,Yang Chao,2,Yang Ik-june,1,Yang Jong-hyeon,1,Yang Woo-seok,1,Yao Tian,1,Yash Chopra,1,Yasmin-san,1,Yeon Sang-ho,2,Yes Madam,1,Yeti Obhijaan,2,Yim Soon-rye,2,Yin Liang,1,Yiu-wai Chu,1,Yoji Yamada,1,Yoo Ha,1,Yoon-chul chung,1,Yoonsuk Jung,1,Yosep Anggi Noen,1,Yoshihiro Hanno,1,Yoshihiro Nakamura,2,Yoshihiro Nishimura,3,Yoshimasa Jimbo,1,Yoshinari Nishikori,1,Yoshishige Yoshida,1,Yoshitaka Mori,1,Yoshiyuki Kishi,1,Yosuke Takeuchi,2,Yotsuya kaidan,1,You Losers!,1,Your Name,1,Youth,1,Yu Aoi,2,Yu Irie,1,Yu Sang-wook,1,Yuen Chor,1,Yuen Woo-ping,1,Yuji Shimomura,1,Yûji Tajiri,2,Yujiro Harumoto,2,Yuki Tanada,1,Yukihiko Tsutsumi,2,Yukuhiro Morigaki,2,Yusaku Matsumoto,2,Yutaka Ikejima,3,Yutaro Nakamura,1,Yuya Ishii,2,Zakka Films,2,Zen,1,Zhang Lu,1,Zhang Nan,1,Zhang Yimou,1,Zig Dulay,1,Zombiology: Enjoy Yourself Tonight,1,Zoo,1,Zuairijah Mou,1,Zuri Rinpoche. Bhutan. Five Flavours,1,
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Asian Film Vault: Recent Trends in the Distribution and Exhibition of Chinese Language Films in the UK Cinema Market
Recent Trends in the Distribution and Exhibition of Chinese Language Films in the UK Cinema Market
An analysis of the penetration of Chinese film in the UK
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Asian Film Vault
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