The Shaw Brothers and the Taiwan Film Industry

Political, industrial and cultural analysis of the connection between Shaw Brothers and Taiwan


Written by Ming-Yeh Rawnsley. The article was initially published on the webpage of the China Policy Institute.

Movie mogul Run Run Shaw (邵逸夫) passed away on 7 January 2014. Many observers have commented on the Shaw Brothers’ empire (邵氏電影公司) and its contribution to Hong Kong cinema. However I would like to add to the discussion a less researched area, that is, from the perspectives of Taiwan’s film industry.

Shaw Brothers was one of the most influential Chinese-language film enterprises between the 1950s and the 1970s. Although, from the 1950s, they had actively expanded their international cooperation with Japan, US and Europe, their major output remained in Mandarin, Cantonese, Amoy-dialect and Malay which appealed primarily to the Chinese audiences in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia and beyond (in 1949 the China market began to shrink and was closed to the outside world until the 1980s). Run Run Shaw left Singapore and in 1957 announced his plan to establish a gigantic production house in Hong Kong based on a vision to both globalize and modernize. By the time Shaw Brothers Production House, containing six studios, was completed in 1964, Mandarin-language cinema had become their predominant output (Fu, 2003: 116–118). While Shaw did not fully realize his ambition to break into the Hollywood mainstream, he brought to the Chinese world the practice and systematic integration of film production, distribution and exhibition, which transformed the Hong Kong film industry into the Hollywood of the East.

I shall address the interactions between Shaw Brothers and Taiwan cinema from three inter-related dimensions, namely the political, industrial and cultural.


Politically speaking, the major concern of the Nationalist government (i.e. Kuomintang or KMT, 國民黨) in the late 1940s was its war effort against the Communists. When it was forced to move to Taiwan in 1949, the KMT became preoccupied by two priorities: claiming sovereignty over mainland China on the one hand, and on the other asserting legitimacy and authority on Taiwan. Meanwhile Hong Kong became an ideological battleground between the left-wing and right-wing film studios. The KMT was eager to win influence in the Hong Kong film sector and stipulated that the film companies set up by Chinese nationals in Hong Kong should be regarded as the ROC’s domestic enterprise and thus eligible for funding, protection and to receive the full benefit of the KMT’s film policies. In this way, the KMT was able to exercise an indirect influence over Hong Kong filmmakers and formed a symbiotic relationship with the Hong Kong film industry, especially when the left-wing companies began to lose their mainland market in the early 1950s. Eventually “studios of the apolitical right as represented by Shaw Brothers […] monopolize[d] market positions in Taiwan and Southeast Asia. The Hong Kong film industry was moving in the direction of a more conventional and refined glamour industry, producing works that would not risk political censorship in their new markets” (Teo, 1997: 26). In other words, the Nationalist government’s political ideology made the ring-wing sector of the Hong Kong film industry the ultimate beneficiary of its film policies while leaving Taiwan’s commercial filmmakers to their own devices.

Taiwan was one of the earliest places in Asia to be acquainted with cinema, but Taiwanese involvement in film production was limited and came relatively late. When the Japanese left Taiwan in 1945, the film industry on the island became a vacuum for several years, and its most established cinema-related activity was exhibition. According to Lu (1998), by 1949 when the KMT relocated its central administration and government-owned film equipment to Taiwan, there were 146 registered privately-run movie theatres on the island showing around 500 films annually, including well over 300 foreign-language films and 100 plus Chinese movies mostly from Shanghai and Hong Kong (pp.42–43). In the early 1950s, between 600 and 700 films were shown in Taiwan each year, but the ratio between foreign-language films and Chinese films was about 2.2:1. Among the Chinese films, the overwhelming majority was imports from Hong Kong while the number of locally produced films was fewer than ten, usually only between two and four, which shows the poor production rate of Taiwan’s local film industry at the time (p.55).

The commercial success of Xue Pinggui and Wang Baochuan (薛平貴與王寶釧, dir. He Jiming, 1956) triggered a surge of Taiwanese-language cinema between 1955 and 1959 when around 200 dialect films were produced by Taiwanese filmmakers. Nevertheless under the authorities’ neo-colonial policy toward local Taiwanese culture, the KMT government continued to support Mandarin-language cinema as part of its nation-building project and ignored the development of dialect cinema. The first wave of Taiwanese-language films declined dramatically when Taiwan suffered from one of the worst floods in history in August 1959 when the financial loss amounted to the government’s total annual budget. The second wave of dialect cinema reemerged in the early 1960s when the island’s economy took off. Yet its popularity began to wane from the end of the 1960s due to a mixture of complex reasons (Rawnsley, forthcoming). One of the crucial factors was that Mandarin-language cinema finally began generating momentum boosted by the huge popularity of a Shaw Brothers-produced Chinese musical (Yellow Plum Melody opera, 黃梅調), "The Love Eterne" (梁山伯與祝英台, dir. Li Hanxiang, 1963).


As Liu (2003: 131–133) has reported, during the early 1960s most first-release run movie theatres in Taiwan had contracts with Hollywood studios to distribute foreign films. It was difficult for Chinese cinema to be shown in these theatres. However the craze for "The Love Eterne" changed the situation, as some theatres went as against their contracts with Hollywood distributors in order to exhibit the film. In revenge eight Hollywood studios stopped supplying movies to Taiwanese theatres, and thus these theatres took the opportunity to release Mandarin-language cinema instead. Consequently the first-release run theatres for Mandarin films increased from one to three chains between 1963 and 1964. A few years later it jumped to six theatre chains and 80% of movie theatres in Taipei began showing Mandarin-language films by the end of the 1960s.

It is industrially and culturally significant for both Taiwan and Shaw Brothers that the latter helped break the stranglehold of theatre chains for Mandarin cinema in Taiwan. Shaw Brothers became Taiwan’s largest distributor and supplier of Mandarin movies, while also concentrating on producing films in Mandarin, which had an impact on the Cantonese film industry in Hong Kong and the Taiwanese-language film industry in Taiwan. Meanwhile the KMT’s Central Motion Pictures Corporation (CMPC, 中央電影公司) began producing more popular Mandarin-language projects under the initiative of Healthy Realism in the 1960s. Subsequently many Taiwanese dialect film workers drifted into the Mandarin-language sector. There was also a flow of Taiwanese-language film talent moving out of Taiwan to Hong Kong in the late 1960s and the 1970s. Most of them were recruited by Shaw Brothers.

It is interesting to note that Shaw Brothers specialized in lavish genre films set in ancient China, such as the Yellow Plum Melody opera, historical costume drama and wuxia (martial arts) films. As it was impossible to conduct location shooting in mainland China at the time, places in Taiwan disguised as imagined cultural China became common screen images for Shaw’s productions. In addition, Taiwan also became Shaw’s closest partner for coproduction, in particular ancient martial arts epics. While the genre films produced by Shaw Brothers dominated Taiwan’s movie markets in the 1960s and the 1970s, Shaw’s imagination of historical and cultural China on screen, echoed by other channels of communications on the island including mass media and school education, became familiar references in the viewers’ daily lives. While the extent to which Shaw’s portrayal of imagined China should be considered Taiwan’s cultural heritage is debatable, Shaw Brothers itself certainly played an important part in Taiwan’s popular culture and film history.

References:

Fu. B.S. 傅葆石 (2003) ‘Moving toward global: A film history of Shaw Brothers’ (走向全球: 邵氏電影史初探), in Liao J.F. et al. 廖金鳳等編著 (eds), The Cinema Empire of Shaw Brothers: The Imagination of Cultural China (邵氏影視帝國: 文化中國的想像). Taipei: Mai-Tian (in Chinese), 115–127.

Liu, X.C. 劉現成 (2003) ‘Shaw Brothers in Taiwan (邵氏電影在台灣)’, in Liao J.F. et al. (eds), The Cinema Empire of Shaw Brothers: The Imagination of Cultural China. Taipei: Mai-Tian (in Chinese),128–150.

Lu, F.I. 盧非易 (1998) Taiwan Cinema: Politics, Economics and Aesthetics, 1949–1994 (台灣電影: 政治, 經濟, 美學, 1949–1994). Taipei: Yuan-Liu (in Chinese).

Rawnsley, M.Y. T. (forthcoming) ‘Taiwanese-language cinema: State versus market, national versus transnational’, Oriental Archive 81.

Teo, S. (1997) Hong Kong Cinema: The Extra Dimensions. London: BFI.

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Lee Sang-il,1,Rahul Jain,1,Railway Sleepers,1,Rainy Dog,1,Raja Mukhriz,1,Rajkumar Gupta,1,Ram,1,Ram Gopal Varma,1,Randy Mckenzie,4,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead,1,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead 2,1,Ravine of Goodbye,1,Re:Born,1,Real,1,Realism,1,Red Beard,1,Red Persimmons,1,Reipu zonbi: Lust of the dead 3,1,Resistance at Tule Lake,1,Respeto,2,Resurrection,1,Revenge: A love story,1,Review,8,Reviews,294,Reviews.,2,Reviews. Panos Kotzathanasis,1,Rima Das,1,Riri Riza,3,Ritwik Ghatak,2,River of Exploding Durians,2,River's Edge,2,Robin Weng,1,Roger Lee,2,Roman Porno,1,Ronja,1,Rouge,1,Roya Sadat,2,Running on Karma,1,Russia,1,RV: Resurrected Victims,1,Ryoo Seung-wan,1,Ryota Sakamaki,1,Ryu Kaneda,1,Ryuki,1,Ryutaro Ninomiya,2,S. Korea,73,S.Korea,2,Saayak Santra,9,Sabrina Baracetti,1,Sabu,3,Sade Sato,1,Salaam Bombay,1,Samui Song,1,San Diego Asian Film Festival,13,San Diego Film Festival,1,Sanjay Leela Bhansali,2,Sanjeewa Pushpakumara,2,Sankha Ray,30,Sarita Khurana,1,Satan's Slaves,3,Satoru Hirohara,1,Satoshi Kon,3,Satya,1,Satyajit Ray,1,Say Yes,1,Sayandeep Bandyopadhyay,6,Scarlet Heart,1,Score,1,Sea Fog,1,Seijun Suzuki,3,Sekigahara,1,Serga Mathang,1,Sexy S.W.A.T. Team,1,Sha Po Lang,1,Shake Rattle and Roll,1,Shakti Sounder Rajan,1,Shanjhey Kumar Perumal,1,Shanker Raman,1,Shaw Brothers,2,She Remembers He Forgets,2,She's the Boss,1,Shehjar,1,Shiboprosad Mukherjee,1,Shift,2,Shigeru Umebayashi,1,Shikhar Verma,13,Shikhar Verna,3,Shim Sung-Bo,1,Shinichi Fukazawa,1,Shinji Somai,2,Shinji Sômai,1,Shinjuku Swan,1,shinjuku Swan II,1,Shinjuku Triad Society,1,Shinobi no Kuni,2,Shinsuke Ogawa,1,Shinsuke Sato,2,Shinya Tsukamoto,4,Shireen Seno,2,Shirley Abraham,1,Shock Wave,1,Shôhei Imamura,1,Shoot for the Contents,1,Shorts,7,Shotaro Kobayashi,1,Shu Qi,1,Shuna Iijima,1,Shunji Iwai,2,Shutter,1,Shuttle Life,2,Shyam Ramsay,1,Siddiq Ahamed,1,Sidharth Bharathan,1,Sidi Saleh,1,Signature,1,Silent Mist,1,Silver Spleen,2,Singapore,3,Singh Anand,1,Singing Chen,1,Sinophone,1,Sion Sono,10,Siti,1,Sixth Sense Hooker,1,Slavemen,1,Sleep Curse,1,Small Talk,2,Smriti Mundhra,1,Sogo Ishii,2,Solanin,1,Solitude,1,Solo,1,Someone To Talk To,1,Sompot Chidgasompongse,2,Song Hae-sung,1,Song Kang-ho,1,Song of the Week,22,Sopawan Boonnimitra,1,Sopon Sakdapisit,1,Soul,1,Soul Mate,1,SoulMate,2,South Korea,21,Sri Lanka,3,Sridevi,1,Srijit Mukherji,7,Stammering Ballad,1,Stanley Kwan,1,Stanley Tong,1,Steel Rain,1,Stephen Chow,1,Stephen Fung,2,Steve James,1,Still the Water,1,Stoneman Murders,1,Story in Taipei,1,Strange Circus,1,Studio Ghibli,1,StudioCanal,4,Subenja Pongkorn,2,Suffering of Ninko,2,Sugihara Survivors: Jewish and Japanese,1,Suicide Club,1,Suman Mukhopadhay,1,Summer Snow,1,Sun-ho Cho,1,Sunao Katabuchi,3,Sunday Beauty Queen,1,Sung-hong Kim,1,Sunk Into the Womb,1,Susumu Hirasawa,1,Sweating the Small Stuff,2,Tadashi Nagayama,1,Tae Guk Gi,1,Tag,1,Taiwan,27,Takaaki Hashiguchi,1,Takahide Hori,1,Takahiro Miko,1,Takahisa Zeze,1,Takao Nakano,1,Takaomi Ogata,4,Takashi Miike,10,Take Care of My Cat,1,Take Off,1,Takeo Kikuchi,2,Takeshi Kaneshiro,1,Takeshi Kitano,1,Takuro Nakamura,2,Talop Wangchuk,1,Tamil,4,Tamura Senichi,1,Tang Seng Kiat,2,Tanit Jitnukul,1,Tanvir Ashraf,2,Taste of Rice Flower,2,Tatara Samurai,1,Tatsuhi Omori,1,Tatsumi,1,Tatsumi Kumashiro,1,Teddy Soeriaatmadja,1,Teenkahon,1,Teppei Nakamura,1,Tetsuo the Iron Man,1,Tetsuya Mariko,1,Tetsuya Nakashima,1,Thailand,21,Thanatos Drunk,1,That's It,1,The Adventurers,2,The Apology,1,The Bad,1,The Blue Redemption,1,The Boy and the Beast,3,The boy from Ipanema,1,The Brink,1,The Chase,1,The Cinema Travellers,1,The Crawler in the Attic,1,The Crazy Family,1,The Day After,1,The Detective,1,The Discloser,1,The Dollhouse,1,The elephant and the sea,2,The Executioner,1,The Eye's Dream,1,The Forest Whispers,1,The Forsaken Land,1,The Fortress,1,The Gangster's Daughter,1,The Girl Who Never Knew War,1,The Golden Fortress,1,The Good,1,The Great Buddha+,1,The Great Passage,1,The Hole,1,The Hungry Lion,1,The Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles,2,The Inugami Family,1,The Iron Ministry,1,The Island That All Flow By,1,The Isthmus,1,The Kid from the Big Apple,1,The King of Pigs,1,The Last Executioner,1,The Last Painting,1,The Long Excuse,1,The Looming Storm,1,The Lowlife,1,The Magic Blade,1,The Man Without a Map,1,The Mayor,1,The Merciless,2,The Mermaid,1,The Muse,1,The Naked Island,1,The Name,1,The Net,1,The Night of the Earthquake,1,The Outlaws,1,The Prison,1,The Promise,1,The Raid,1,The Raid 2,1,The recipe,1,The Road Home,1,The Road to Mandalay,1,the Robber's Daughter,1,The Room,1,The Sacrament,1,The Salesman,1,The Seen and Unseen,1,The Shoot Must Go On,1,The Sleep Curse,1,The Sower,2,The Story of the Disappearance of Maryam,1,The Strange Saga of Hiroshi the Freeloading Sex Machine,1,The Swindlers,1,The Table,1,The Third Murder,1,The Thousand Faces of Dunjia,1,The Tiger: An Old Hunter's Tale,1,The Tokyo Night Sky is Always the Densest Shade of Blue,1,The Tooth and the Nail,1,The Truth Beneath,1,The Vanished,1,The Villainess,3,The Violin Player,1,The Way We Are,1,The Weird,1,The Windmill Palm Grove,1,Theeran Adhigaaram Ondru,1,Third WIndow,1,This Is Not What I Expected,1,This Is Not What I Expected!,1,Thondimuthalum Driksakshiyum,1,Three Sisters,1,Three Times,1,Tiffany Hsiung,1,Tik Tik Tik,1,Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan,1,Tokyo Ghoul,1,Tokyo Heaven,1,Tokyo Idols,1,Tokyo Vampire Hotel,1,Tolerance Film Festival,1,Tom Waller,2,Tony Leung,1,Tony Takitani,1,Torico,2,Toronto International Film Festival,1,Toshiaki Toyoda,2,Toshihisa Yokoshima,3,Toshimasha Kobayashi,1,Toshio Matsumoto,1,Toshiya Fujita,1,Town in a Lake,1,Traces of Sin,1,Trailers,84,Train to Busan,1,Tran Ham,1,Translated articles,1,Trapped,1,Travellers and Magicians,1,Treb Monteras II,2,Trinh T. Minh-Ha,3,Triple Threat,1,True Fiction,1,Tsai Ming-liang,2,Tulsi Ramsay,1,Twenty Two,1,Twilight Dinner,1,Twitch: You Are My Toy,1,Typhoon Club,1,Udine,1,Um Tae-hwa,1,Unbowed,1,Uncovered,1,Up Down and Sideways,1,V.I.P.,1,Vagabond,1,Vaishali Sinha,1,Vampire Cleanup Department,2,Vanishing Time A Boy Who Returned,1,Vannaphone Sitthirath,1,various,2,Varnyathil Aashanka,1,Verena Paravel,1,Vesoul International Film Festival,20,Victor Vu,1,Vidya Balan,1,Vietnam,6,Vikram Zushi,1,Vikramaditya Motwane,1,Village Rockstars,1,Vimukthi Jayasundara,1,Vinay Shukla,1,Vincent Kok,1,Violated Angels,1,Visitor Q,1,Vital,1,Vitaly Mansky,1,Vivien Qu,1,Voyage to Terengganu,1,Wai Ka-fai,1,Walk on Girl,1,Walking Past the Future,1,Wang Bing,3,Wang Chao,2,Wang Lung-wei,1,Wang Ming-tai,1,Warriors of the Dawn,2,We Make Antiques,1,Weeds on Fire,1,Wei-Hao Cheng,1,Wellgo USA,2,West North West,2,What a Man Wants,1,What A Wonderful Family 2,1,What Time Is It There?,1,Whispering Corridors,1,Whispering Star,1,White Sun,1,Who Killed Cock Robin,1,Whore Angel,1,Wilson Yip,1,Wiman Rizkidarajat,1,Wine War,1,Winter Vacation,1,With Prisoners,1,Without Memory,1,Wol-Ha: Very Bad Moon Rising,1,Woman of the Lake,1,Won Shin-Yeon,1,Wong Chun,3,Wong Jing,2,Wong Kar-wai,2,Woo Ming Jin,1,Xaisongkham Induangchanthy,1,Xu Bing,1,Ya-che Yang,1,Yamato (California),4,Yan Pak Wing,2,Yang Chao,2,Yang Ik-june,1,Yang Jong-hyeon,1,Yang Woo-seok,1,Yao Tian,1,Yash Chopra,1,Yeon Sang-ho,2,Yes Madam,1,Yeti Obhijaan,2,Yin Liang,1,Yiu-wai Chu,1,Yoji Yamada,1,Yoo Ha,1,Yoon-chul chung,1,Yoonsuk Jung,1,Yosep Anggi Noen,1,Yoshihiro Hanno,1,Yoshihiro Nakamura,2,Yoshihiro Nishimura,3,Yoshimasa Jimbo,1,Yoshinari Nishikori,1,Yoshishige Yoshida,1,Yoshitaka Mori,1,Yoshiyuki Kishi,1,Yosuke Takeuchi,2,Yotsuya kaidan,1,You Losers!,1,Your Name,1,Youth,1,Yu Aoi,2,Yu Irie,1,Yu Sang-wook,1,Yuen Chor,1,Yuen Woo-ping,1,Yuji Shimomura,1,Yûji Tajiri,2,Yujiro Harumoto,2,Yuki Tanada,1,Yukihiko Tsutsumi,2,Yukuhiro Morigaki,2,Yusaku Matsumoto,2,Yutaka Ikejima,3,Yutaro Nakamura,1,Yuya Ishii,2,Zakka Films,2,Zhang Lu,1,Zhang Nan,1,Zhang Yimou,1,Zig Dulay,1,Zombiology: Enjoy Yourself Tonight,1,Zoo,1,Zuairijah Mou,1,Zuri Rinpoche. Bhutan. Five Flavours,1,
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Asian Film Vault: The Shaw Brothers and the Taiwan Film Industry
The Shaw Brothers and the Taiwan Film Industry
Political, industrial and cultural analysis of the connection between Shaw Brothers and Taiwan
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Asian Film Vault
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