China’s film industry: Blocked by its own Great Wall

An analysis of the collaboration between China and the West

Written by Leung Wing-Fai. The article was initially published on the webpage of the China Policy Institute.

Commenting on the increasingly tight connections between China and Hollywood, Stanley Rosen observed that this was a “win-win” situation; China has the market, Hollywood has the talent. In short, mused Professor Rosen, “Hollywood has what China lacks: Storytelling ability, marketing, and distribution”. As Marvel announces plans to produce an explicitly China-oriented extension of the Captain America franchise (dubbed ‘Captain China’), I want to consider recent developments in the Chinese film industry to assess its purported deficiencies.


As with the rest of its economy, growth in Chinese cinema means rapid expansion. In 2012, China became the world’s second biggest film market second only to the USA, and is projected to be number one by 2020. In 2014, domestic films accounted for 54.51% of box office revenues and half of the top 20 highest earning films. The number of cinema screens rose from 6.200 in 2010 to 31.627 in 2015. Much of the audience is young; they like purchasing tickets online and have mostly grown up on a diet of foreign, especially American, movies, as evidenced by the success of "Avatar" (2009), "Transformers: Age of Extinction" (2014) and "Furious 7" (2015), which respectively broke the all time box office records. Still, it remains impossible to predict box office response in either North America or China: "Warcraft: The Beginning" (2016) was a flop in North America, while the film, financed by the Wanda-owned Legendary Entertainment and distributed by Universal Pictures, broke a series of Chinese box office records after the opening weekend in June 2016. Oriental DreamWorks, a collaboration between China Media Capital and DreamWorks, produced "Kung Fu Panda 3" (2016), which grossed nearly 1 billion yuan domestically and did well in North America. Elsewhere, films have added Chinese stars or scenes that cater for the mainland market, such as "Iron Man 3" (2013). The Marvel Studio is even planning a Captain China franchise.

The Chinese film industry is actively resisting, imitating and collaborating with Hollywood, making itself a formidable if contradictory force. The aforementioned Dalian Wanda is owned by Wang Jianlin, the poster boy of private business in the new China, a self-made entrepreneur or getihu (个体户), inspired by Deng Xiaoping’s famous maxim ‘let some people get rich first’. Wang served in the People’s Liberation Army and then started investing in property, founding Wanda in 1988.


Wanda has only been interested in entertainment for a few years, but has already acquired the most profitable Hollywood film company, Legendary, a production firm whose slate includes the Batman series. Locally, Wang announced the building of China’s biggest studio complex in Qingdao estimated at $8.2 billion. Wanda’s first American film, also financed by the Weinstein company, is "Southpaw" (Antoine Fuqua, 2015), a boxing flick starring Jake Gyllenhaal, and with a largely African American cast and no Chinese element whatsoever.

In July 2016, encouraged by the low exchange rate days after the Brexit referendum, Dalian Wanda-owned cinema chain AMC acquired Odeon and UCI Cinemas in the UK, representing 242 cinemas. With this latest acquisition, adding to Hoyts cinemas in Australia, Wanda has built the largest global cinema exhibition empire. But Wanda is not the only Chinese private enterprise that is venturing into the entertainment industry: Huayi Brothers, an already highly successful private studio, will co-finance at least 18 films with Hollywood studios to be produced over a three-year period beginning in 2016. Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent, the three Internet giants, are all investing in the sector.

Meanwhile, the Chinese state has thawed its longstanding policy to assist the growth of the film industry: The quota for foreign films of 20 a year was increased to 34, allowing for 14 imports in 3D or IMAX format. These films can take 25% of the box office with the income being shared. Domestic companies can distribute other foreign films, but the foreign companies do not take any box office share. Thirty to forty films are imported this way every year, though their revenue is a lot lower than that of the thirty-four share-profit movies. In 2014, a series of tax and VAT measures were passed to encourage domestic film exports. These policy changes have come in response to a directive by the Central Committee meeting of the Chinese Communist Party, which announced in 2011 that ‘it is a pressing task to increase the state’s cultural soft power’ and to ‘build our country into a socialist cultural superpower’. When Shanghai Media Group signed its deal with DreamWorks in 2012, Xi Jinping, then vice-president, attended the ceremony in Los Angeles.

While Hollywood has had a long presence in China as co-producer, importer and model of commercial practice, other film industries have also moved to collaborate with China, often aided by government support. The UK China Film Co-production Agreement was signed in April 2014, negotiated between the British Film Institute and China’s State Administration of Radio, Film & Television (SARFT). Other countries with similar arrangements with China include Singapore and South Korea. Under the UK-China agreement, films will qualify as domestic films in China, not restricted by quotas, while in the UK, they benefit from Film Tax Relief. One of the first beneficiaries was the Shanghai Media Group and BBC film "Earth: One Amazing Day", a sequel to BBC’s Planet Earth documentary (2006).


One thing that all potential co-producers fear is censorship. The struggle between creative content and politics has been around since the introduction of the medium in the early twentieth century. Leftist filmmakers associated with the May Fourth intellectuals used movies to educate the masses. The Nationalists regulated film production. Mao and the party used film as the most popular media to propagate Socialist ideals, a practice that reached its apogee during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Unlike American studios, Chinese producers had rarely been required to consider how to please audiences as ticket buyers for decades. Even with the Open Door policy and liberalization of the economy, SARFT tightly controlled all aspects of filmmaking.

Only in 1993, when income sharing with foreign films was first allowed, did the Chinese film market gradually open up to become a commercial entity. Like everything else in the new Chinese economy, popular cinema is a new, barely 20 year old concept. What is also new is the need to balance content, political intervention and entertainment value, not only for the Chinese audiences but ideally for overseas markets as well. China is playing catch up and learning fast, while it appears that the demand prevents a gradual maturing process.

Despite being one of America’s biggest cultural exports, Hollywood never worries too much about having to explain cultural specificity to worldwide audiences. China, on the other hand, feels the burden every time. Early successes such as "The Last Emperor" (Bernando Bertolucci, 1988) have not been matched by recent attempts like "The Flowers of War" (Zhang Yimou, 2011), where the existence of a well-known Hollywood star (Christian Bale) failed to make a film set during the Japanese occupation of Nanjing and the massacre relevant to most markets outside Asia. It seems China’s premier director Zhang is again attempting an international crossover with Matt Damon and the Hong Kong star Andy Lau appearing in the patriotic film "The Great Wall" (2016).


So far, many of the successful domestic commercial films have learned from the West rather than the other way round. Consequently, even top Chinese films have rarely performed well overseas in any significant way. "Pancake Man" (2015), a successful film in the domestic market is described by The Hollywood Reporter as a ‘Chinese comedy directed by its star; about an actor making a film about a superhero,’ with the local humour completely eluding the American reviewer. Marvel’s forthcoming "Doctor Strange" has the white actress Tilda Swinton play ‘the Ancient One’, depicted as a Tibetan male in the comics, in order to avoid censorship issues with Chinese regulators. While this latest example of “yellow face” has angered many Hollywood watchers, the negative connotation has been largely ignored by the Chinese media.

We have to remember that cinema is never culture-neutral and, despite all the capital investment and universalizing appeal of some films (more likely Hollywood than Chinese-made), films are cultural products that have to tell stories in order to appeal. The fact is, we are still waiting for the next global Chinese blockbuster after "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" (2000). What Chinese cinema enjoys is private capital and state support (to varying extent), but the industry still lacks exportable brand names by way of stars or studios. As the country is finding it in more general terms, soft power via cultural products like movies is still a Chinese pipe dream.

Leung Wing-Fai is Lecturer in Culture, Media and Creative Industries at King’s College London.

COMMENTS

Name

13 Assassins,1,1987: When The Day Comes,1,2017,3,2LDK,1,3-Iron,1,A Better Tomorrow 2018,2,A Company Man,1,A Day,1,A Feeling Greater Than Love,1,A few words about us,1,A Girl at my Door,1,A Lonely Cow Weeps at Dawm,1,A Love,1,A Man of Integrity,1,A Man Vanishes,1,A Simple Life,1,A Single Rider,1,A Special Lady,1,A Stone from Another Mountain to Polish Your Own Stone. Go Shibata,1,A Tale of Love,1,A Taxi Driver,1,A tiger in winter,1,A Whale of a Tale,1,Abdullah Mohammad Saad,2,About Elly,1,Above the Clouds,1,Adam J. Symchuk,21,Adam John,6,Address Unknown,1,Aditya Vikram Sengupta,1,Adriana Rosati,18,Age of Innocence,1,Age of Shadows,1,Aihara Hiro,1,Akihiko Shiota,1,Akihiro Toda,1,Akio Fujimoto,1,Akira Ikeda,2,Akira Kurosawa,1,Akiyuki Shinbo,2,Alan Mak,1,Ale Amout,1,Alex Oost,1,Alexander Knoth,1,Ali Asghar Vadayeh Kheiri,1,Along with the Gods: The Two Worlds,1,Ambiguous Places,2,Amir Masoud Aghababeian,1,Amir Muhammad,2,Amitabh Reza,1,Anand Singh,3,Andrew Thayne,5,Andy Lau,1,Andy Willis,1,Anime,3,Animesh Aich,1,Ann Hui,1,Anna Bliss,3,Anqi Ju,1,Anshul Chauhan,2,Anthony Pun,1,Antiporno,1,Anurag Basu,1,Anysay Keola,1,Apprentice,1,Aqerat,2,Arang,1,Ariyuki Shinbo,1,Armour of God,1,Arrow,4,Art Film Fest Kosice,1,Article Films,3,Asghar Farhadi,1,Asha Jaoar Majhe,1,Asian Classics,27,Ask the Sexpert. India,1,Aya Hanabusa,1,Aya Itabe,1,Aynabaji,1,Baasansuren Nyamdavaa,1,Bad Poetry Tokyo,4,Badrul Hisham,1,Badrul Hisham Ismail,1,BAMY,2,Bangkok Nites,1,Bangladesh,8,Banjong Pisanthanakun,1,Banmei Takahashi,1,Battle of Memories,1,Battleship Island,1,Before We Vanish,2,Behind the Camera,1,Belgium,1,Ben Stykuc,5,Bengal,1,BFI,1,Bhutan,2,Big Tits Dragon,1,Billy Joe,2,Black,1,Blade of the Immortal,1,Bleeding Steel,1,Bloodrunner Zero,1,Bloody Muscle Builder in Hell,1,Bluebeard,1,Bollywood,1,Boo Junfeng,1,Born Bone Born,1,Branded to Kill,2,Breathless,1,Brothers in Heaven,1,Bunny Drop,1,Burma,1,Burning Birds,2,Bystanders,1,Byun Sung-Hyun,1,Call Boy,1,Cambodia,4,Camera Japan,10,Cannes Film Festival,5,Chang,1,Chang Zheng,1,Cheng Cheng Films,1,Children Heaven,1,China,43,Chinese Policy Institute,6,Chinese Shadows,2,Chinese Visual Festival,1,Cho Keun-Hyun,1,Choi Jin-ho,1,Choi Jin-won,1,Choi Min-sik,1,Chris Berry,1,Chu Yuan,1,Chung Ji-young,1,Chungking Express,1,Close-Knit,1,Coffeemates,1,Colette Balmain,7,Colour of the Game,1,Competition,2,Confessions,1,Contact Info,1,Creative Visions: Hong Kong Cinema,1,Criminal City,1,Crocodile,1,Crosscurrent,1,Crows Zero,1,Cyrano Agency,1,Daguerreotype,1,Daigo Matsui,1,Daihachi Yoshida,1,Daisuke Gotô,2,Daisuke Miura,1,Daisuke Miyazaki,3,Dante Lam,1,David Chew,5,David Chew.,1,David Shin,1,Davy Chou,1,Dawn Wind in My Poncho,1,Ddongpari,1,Dead Friend,1,Dead Sushi,1,Deadly Outlaw: Rekka,1,Dechen Roden,1,Deepak Rauniyar,1,Derek Hui,1,Destruction Babies,1,Diary of June,1,Digger,1,Ding Shen,1,Ding Sheng,2,Dismembered,1,Documentaries,18,Documentary,3,Doenjang,1,Don Anelli,23,Dong Yue,1,Double Life,1,Dr. Heo,1,drama,1,Duelist,1,East Winds Film Festival,1,Edmund Yeo,4,Educating Yuna,1,Eiji Uchida,2,Emmanuel Horlaza,1,Enter the Warriors Gate,1,Erotic Diary of an Office Lady,1,Eureka,7,Evil and the Mask,1,Exploitation,34,Explosion,1,Fabricated City,1,Far East Film Festival,7,Fatal Countdown: Reset,1,Fathers,1,Faye Wong,1,Features,23,Feautures,1,FEFF20,1,Fel,8,Festivals,13,Filmddo,1,Filmdoo,17,Fireworks,1,Fireworks Should We See It from the Side or the Bottom?,2,Five Flavors Festival,3,Five Flavours,1,Five Flavours Festival,5,Flying Fish,1,Forgetting Vietnam,1,France,1,Fraser Elliott,1,From Vegas to Macau III,1,Fujian Blue,1,Fullmetal Alchemist,1,Fumihiko Sori,1,Funeral Parade of Roses,1,Funuke Show Some Love,1,Fuyuhiko Nishi,1,Giddens Ko,1,Gillian Anderson,1,God of War,1,Godzilla: Planet of the Monsters,1,Golden Horse Awards,1,Golden Slumbers,1,Good -Bye Silence,2,Gordon Chan,1,Goro Miyazaki,1,Guo Jian-yong,2,Han Jie,1,Hanagatami,1,Hanging Garden,1,Hanuman,1,Hapkido,1,Hashiguchi Takaaki,1,Haunters,1,HBO,2,Heart Attack,1,Helldriver,1,Helsinki Cine Aasia Festival 2018,3,Her Own Address,1,Herman Yau,1,Heung-Boo: The Revolutionist,1,Hidden Gems,50,Hideo Sakaki,1,High-Kick Girl,1,Hindi,1,Hiro Aihara,1,Hirobumi Watanabe,2,Hirokazu Koreeda,4,Hiroshi Ando,1,Hiroshi Shoji,1,Hiroshi Teshigahara,1,Hiroyuki Seshita,1,HKETO,1,Ho Yuhang,1,Holy Island,1,Honeygiver Among the Dogs,1,Hong Ki-Seon,1,Hong Kong,10,Hong Kong Godfather,1,Hong Sang-soo,1,Hongkong,1,Horror,3,Huang Fend,1,Huang Huang,1,Hwang Dong-Hyuk,1,I Am A Hero,1,I Saw the Devil,1,I Wish,1,I-Lin Liu,8,ICA,3,Icarus Films,4,IFFLA,3,IFFR,2,Im Kyeong-soo,1,Imran Firdaus,1,Imran Fridaus,1,In this Corner of the World,3,Indonesia,5,Initiation Love,1,International Chinese Film Festival,1,International Film Festival Rotterdam,9,Interview,2,Interviews,35,Intimate Confessions of a Chinese Courtesan,1,Inugami,1,Inuyashiki,1,Iran,8,Ishmael Bernal,1,Isora Iwakiri,1,J.P. Sniadecki,1,Jackie Chan,5,Jagat,1,Jagga Jasoos,1,James Mudge,1,Jang Chang-won,1,Jang Hoon,1,Jang Joon-hwan,1,Japan,195,Japan Cuts,15,Japan Film Festival Australia,1,Japan Filmfest Hamburg,1,Japan Foundation Touring Programme,3,Japan the Emperor and the Army,1,Japan. Reviews,1,Japanese Film Festival Australia,2,Jeong Jae-eun,1,Jeong Yun-Cheol,1,Jeonju International Film Festival,1,Jess Teong,1,Jesse V. Johnson,1,Jia Zhangke,1,Jimmy Henderson,2,Jin Xingzheng.,1,Jithin K Mohan,1,Joe Odagiri,2,Johnnie To,1,Johnny Ma,1,Joko Anwar,1,Jonathan Li,1,Jonathan Wilson,6,Jonathan Yi,1,Joo Ji-hong,1,Journey of the Tortoise,1,Joy of Man's Desiring,1,July Jung,1,Jun Ichikawa,1,Jun Tanaka,3,Jung Byung-gil,1,Jung Sik,1,Jung Yoon-suk,1,Junichi Kajioka,1,Junpei Mizusaki,1,Justice in Northwest,1,K-dramas,12,Kaasan Mom’s Life,1,Kam Ka-Wai,1,Kaneto Shindo,1,Kang Je-gyu,1,Kang Yoon-Sung,2,Kara Hui,1,Katsuya Tomita,1,Katsuyuki Motohiro,1,kdrama,1,Ke Guo,1,Keep Calm and Be a Superstar,1,Kei Chikaura,1,Kei Horie,1,Kei Ishikawa,1,Keishimi Oto,1,Ken and Kazu,1,Kengo Yagawa,1,Kenichi Ugaba,1,Kenichi Ugana,1,Kenichi Watanabe,1,Kentaro Hagiwara,1,Kfc,1,Kill me,1,Killing Beauty,1,Kim Bong-han,1,Kim Eun-hee,1,Kim Hong-seon,1,Kim Hong-Sun,1,Kim Hyun-seok,1,Kim Jee-woon,3,Kim Jin-Mook,1,Kim Jong-Kwan,1,Kim Joo-hwan,1,Kim Ki-duk,4,Kim Kih-hoon,1,Kim Min Su kII,1,Kim Min-suk,1,Kim Tae-kyeong,1,Kim Whee,1,Kim Yong-hwa,1,Kingyo,2,Kirti Raj Singh,1,Kiss me,1,Kiyoshi Kurosawa,5,Kôbun Shizuno,1,Koji Fukada,1,Koji Wakamatsu,1,Komiya Masatetsu,1,Kon Ichikawa,2,Konrad Aderer,1,Korea,1,korean drama,1,Krzysztof Pietrzak,1,Kun-Yu Lai,2,Kwak Kyung-taek,2,Kyoko Miyake,1,Kyriacos Kyriacou,2,Lady Snowblood,2,Laos,2,Laughing Under the Clouds,1,Le Binh Giang,1,Le Bình Giang,1,Leandro E. Seta,1,Lebanon,1,Lee An-gyu,1,Lee Byeong-Hun,1,Lee Byung-Hun,1,Lee Chang-Hee,1,Lee Je-Yong,1,Lee Joo-young,1,Lee Jung-sun,1,Lee Kwang-kuk,1,Lee Myung-se,1,Lee Sa-rang,1,Lee Seo-goon,1,Leo Zhang,1,Leon Lai,1,Leste Chen,1,Leung Wing-Fai,1,Ley Lines,1,Li Ruijun,1,Like Father,1,Like Son,1,Lim Sang-yoon,1,Lists,11,Little Big Soldier,1,Little Forest,1,Live from Dhaka,1,Live Up To Your Name,1,Loi Bao,1,London Korean Film Festival,1,Los Angeles Indian Festival,3,Love,1,Love and Other Cults,1,Lovers Are Wet,1,Lowlife Love,1,Lyberis,3,Mad Tiger,1,Mad World,1,Madman,2,Mahde Hasan,1,Mai Chan's Daily Life: The Movie,1,Majid Majidi,1,Makoto Shinkai,1,Malaysia,10,Mama,1,Mamoru Hosoda,1,Manny Araneta,1,March Comes in like a Lion,1,Maria Georgiou,23,Mark Gallagher,1,Mary Jirmanus Saba,1,Masaaki Yuasa,2,Masaharu Take,1,Masakazu Sugita,1,Masaki Adachi,1,Masanori Tominaga,1,Masaru Konume,1,Masato Harada,2,Masatoshi Kurakata,1,Matt Cooper,14,Matthew D. Johnson,1,Matthias Hoene,1,Maundy Thursday,1,Memoir of a Murderer,1,Mermaid,1,Michael Haertlein,1,Midi Z,1,Midnight Runners,1,Midori Impuls,4,Milk the Maid,1,Minamata: The Victims and Their World,1,Minoru Kunizawa,1,Miss Zombie,1,Miwa Nishikawa,1,Mohammad Rasoulof,1,Mohammad-Reza Lotfi,1,Mon Mon Mon Monsters,1,Mongolia,2,Moon Lovers,1,Mototsugu Watanabe,4,Mountains May Depart,1,Mourning Forest,1,Movie,1,Moving,1,Mr. Socrates,1,Mrs Fang,1,Mrs K,1,Mumon: The Land of Stealth,1,My Dad and Mr Ito,1,My Hero Chihiro,1,Myanmar,1,Nah Hyeon,1,Namiya,1,Nanachan,1,Naoko Ogigami,1,Naomi Kawase,3,Naosuke Kurosawa,1,Naoyuki Tomomatsu,3,Nawapol Thamrongrattanarit,1,Neko Atsume House,1,Nepal,1,Neuchâtel International Fantastic Film Festival,1,Never Ending Blue,1,New Neighbor,2,New World,1,New York Indian Film Festival,1,News,13,Nicholas Poly,3,Night Bus,1,Night is Short,1,Night is Short Walk on Girl,1,Nikola Cekic,1,Niwatsukino Norihiro,1,Noboru Iguchi,1,Nobuhiko Obayashi,2,Nobuhiro Yamashita,2,Nobuo Nakagawa,1,Nobuyuki Takeuchi,2,Noise,2,Non-fiction Diary,1,Noriaki Tsuchimoto,1,Norman England,2,North Korea,1,Nurse Diary: Beast Afternoon,1,NYAFF,9,Nyamdavaa Baasansuren,1,NYIFF,1,Odd Obsession,1,Oh In-Chun,1,Old Boy,2,Old Stone,1,Old-School Kung-Fu Fest,1,Omar Rasya Joenoes,3,On The Line Festival,3,One Cut of the Dead,1,One Man's China,1,Operation Red Sea,1,Ophilia,1,Ordinary Person,1,Orson McClellan Mochizuki,1,Osaka Asian Film Festival,7,Osamu Sato,1,Our Happy time,1,Outrage Coda,1,Over the Fence,1,Pai Kau,1,Palatpol Mingpornpichit,2,Panos,1,Panos Kotzathanasis,145,Park Chan-wook,2,Park Hee-joon,1,Park Hoon-Jung,3,Park In-je,1,Park Ki- hyung,1,Park Kwang-hyun,1,Parkpoom Wongpoom,1,Party Round the Globe,1,Passage of Life,1,Patrick Hofmeister,71,Pedro Morata,3,Peerachai Kerdsint,1,Pen-Ek Ratanaruang,1,Peng Xiaolian,1,Pepe Diokno,1,Peque Gallaga,1,Perfect Blue,2,Peter Chan,1,Phanumad Disattha,1,Philippines,2,Pieter - Jan Van Haecke,3,Pieter-Jan Van Haecke,7,Pink Eiga,14,PinkEiga.TV,6,pinku eiga,1,Poet on a Business Trip,1,Poolside Man,1,Press Release,2,Proshoon Rahmaan,2,Psychic,1,Pumpkin and Mayonnaise,1,Queen of Triads,1,Rabbit and Lizard,1,Radiance,1,Railway Sleepers,1,Rainy Dog,1,Raja Mukhriz,1,Randy Mckenzie,4,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead,1,Rape Zombie: Lust of the Dead 2,1,Ravine of Goodbye,1,Real,1,Red Persimmons,1,Rei Sakamoto,1,Reipu zonbi: Lust of the dead 3,1,Review,3,Reviews,118,Reviews.,2,Riri Riza,1,River of Exploding Durians,2,Robin Weng,1,Roger Lee,1,Ronja,1,Russia,1,RV: Resurrected Victims,1,Ryoo Seung-wan,1,Ryu Kaneda,1,Ryuki,1,Ryutaro Ninomiya,2,S. Korea,62,S.Korea,1,Saayak Santra,2,Sabu,2,Sade Sato,1,San Diego Asian Film Festival,4,Sanjeewa Pushpakumara,2,Sankha Ray,6,Satan's Slaves,1,Satoru Hirohara,1,Satoshi Kon,3,Say Yes,1,Sayandeep Bandyopadhyay,2,Scarlet Heart,1,Score,1,Sea Fog,1,Seijun Suzuki,3,Sekigahara,1,Sexy S.W.A.T. Team,1,Shake Rattle and Roll,1,Shanjhey Kumar Perumal,1,Shaw Brothers,1,She Remembers He Forgets,1,She's the Boss,1,Shift,2,Shigeru Umebayashi,1,Shikhar Verma,3,Shikhar Verna,3,Shim Sung-Bo,1,Shinichi Fukazawa,1,Shinichiro Ueda,1,Shinji Iwai,1,Shinji Somai,2,Shinji Sômai,1,Shinjuku Swan,1,Shinjuku Triad Society,1,Shinobi no Kuni,2,Shinsuke Ogawa,1,Shinsuke Sato,2,Shinya Tsukamoto,2,Shôhei Imamura,1,Shoot for the Contents,1,Shorts,9,Shotaro Kobayashi,1,Shu Qi,1,Shuna Iijima,1,Shutter,1,Siddiq Ahamed,1,Sidi Saleh,1,Signature,1,Silver Spleen,2,Singapore,1,Sinophone,1,Sion Sono,6,Sixth Sense Hooker,1,Sleep Curse,1,Sogo Ishii,2,Soichi Umezawa,1,Solanin,1,Sompot Chidgasompongse,2,Song Hae-sung,1,Song Kang-ho,1,Song of the Week,19,Sopawan Boonnimitra,1,South Korea,17,Sri Lanka,3,Steel Rain,1,Stephen Chow,1,Stephen Fung,1,Still the Water,1,Strange Circus,1,Studio Ghibli,1,StudioCanal,4,Subenja Pongkorn,1,Suffering of Ninko,1,Suicide Club,1,Sukita: The Shoot Must Go On,1,Sun-ho Cho,1,Sunao Katabuchi,3,Sung-hong Kim,1,Sunk Into the Womb,1,Susumu Hirasawa,1,Sweating the Small Stuff,2,Tadashi Nagayama,1,Tae Guk Gi,1,Tag,1,Taiwan,1,Takaaki Hashiguchi,1,Takahiro Miko,1,Takahisa Zeze,1,Takao Nakano,1,Takaomi Ogata,3,Takashi Miike,9,Take Care of My Cat,1,Takeshi Kaneshiro,1,Takeshi Kitano,1,Takuro Nakamura,2,Tatara Samurai,1,Tatsuhi Omori,1,Tatsumi Kumashiro,1,Teppei Nakamura,1,Tetsuo the Iron Man,1,Tetsuya Mariko,1,Tetsuya Nakashima,1,Thailand,11,That's It,1,The Adventurers,1,The Bad,1,The Boy and the Beast,3,The boy from Ipanema,1,The Brink,1,The Chase,1,The Crawler in the Attic,1,The Crazy Family,1,The Day After,1,The Discloser,1,The Dollhouse,1,The elephant and the sea,2,The Executioner,1,The Forest Whispers,1,The Forsaken Land,1,The Fortress,1,The Good,1,The Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles,1,The Inugami Family,1,The Iron Ministry,1,The Isthmus,1,The Kid from the Big Apple,1,The King of Pigs,1,The Last Executioner,1,The Looming Storm,1,The Lowlife,1,The Man Without a Map,1,The Mayor,1,The Merciless,1,The Mermaid,1,The Muse,1,The Naked Island,1,The Name,1,The Night of the Earthquake,1,The Outlaws,1,The Prison,1,The recipe,1,The Road Home,1,The Road to Mandalay,1,the Robber's Daughter,1,The Room,1,The Sacrament,1,The Salesman,1,The Shoot Must Go On,1,The Snow King,1,The Sower,2,The Story of the Disappearance of Maryam,1,The Strange Saga of Hiroshi the Freeloading Sex Machine,1,The Suicide Chain,1,The Swindlers,1,The Table,1,The Third Murder,1,The Thousand Faces of Dunjia,1,The Tiger: An Old Hunter's Tale,1,The Tokyo Night Sky is Always the Densest Shade of Blue,1,The Tooth and the Nail,1,The Vanished,1,The Villainess,1,The Weird,1,Third WIndow,1,This Is Not What I Expected,1,Three Sisters,1,Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan,1,Tokyo Ghoul,1,Tokyo Heaven,1,Tokyo Idols,1,Tokyo Vampire Hotel,1,Tolerance Film Festival,1,Tom Waller,2,Tony Leung,1,Tony Takitani,1,Toronto International Film Festival,1,Toshiaki Toyoda,2,Toshio Matsumoto,1,Toshiya Fujita,1,Toshiyuki Teruya,1,Traces of Sin,1,Trailers,76,Train to Busan,1,Tran Ham,1,Trinh T. Minh-Ha,3,Triple Threat,1,True Fiction,1,Twenty Two,1,Twilight Dinner,1,Twitch: You Are My Toy,1,Typhoon Club,1,Udine,1,Unbowed,1,Uncovered,1,V.I.P.,1,Vaishali Sinha,1,Vampire Clay,1,Vampire Cleanup Department,1,Vannaphone Sitthirath,1,various,2,Vesoul International Film Festival,4,Victor Vu,1,Vietnam,4,Vikram Zushi,1,Vimukthi Jayasundara,1,Vincent Kok,1,Violated Angels,1,Visitor Q,1,Vital,1,Vitaly Mansky,1,Voyage to Terengganu,1,Walk on Girl,1,Walking Past the Future,1,Wang Bing,2,Wang Lung-wei,1,Warriors of the Dawn,1,We Make Antiques,1,Wellgo USA,1,West North West,2,What a Man Wants,1,Whispering Corridors,1,White Sun,1,Whore Angel,1,Wiman Rizkidarajat,1,Wine War,1,Without Memory,1,Wol-Ha: Very Bad Moon Rising,1,Woman of the Lake,1,Won Shin-Yeon,1,Wong Jing,2,Woo Ming Jin,1,Wrath of Silence,1,Xaisongkham Induangchanthy,1,Xin Yukun,1,Yamato (California),3,Yang Chao,1,Yang Ik-june,1,Yang Jong-hyeon,1,Yang Woo-seok,1,Yeon Sang-ho,2,Yim Soon-rye,1,Yiu-wai Chu,1,Yoshihiro Nakamura,2,Yoshihiro Nishimura,1,Yoshinari Nishikori,1,Yoshishige Yoshida,1,Yoshitaka Mori,1,Yoshiyuki Kishi,1,Yosuke Takeuchi,2,Yotsuya kaidan,1,You Losers!,1,Your Name,1,Yu Aoi,2,Yu Irie,1,Yuen Woo-ping,1,Yûji Tajiri,2,Yujiro Harumoto,1,Yuki Tanada,1,Yukihiko Tsutsumi,2,Yusaku Matsumoto,2,Yutaka Ikejima,3,Yuya Ishii,1,Zakka Films,2,Zen,1,Zhang Yimou,1,Zoo,1,Zuairijah Mou,1,
ltr
item
Asian Film Vault: China’s film industry: Blocked by its own Great Wall
China’s film industry: Blocked by its own Great Wall
An analysis of the collaboration between China and the West
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-A3EhZJWJQpA/WS59KADaaQI/AAAAAAAAMMI/Q8B9bsV6ofAzNpitPHYPBcwoPSBwP1JiwCLcB/s320/1329756641_5183cd4ddc_o.jpg
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-A3EhZJWJQpA/WS59KADaaQI/AAAAAAAAMMI/Q8B9bsV6ofAzNpitPHYPBcwoPSBwP1JiwCLcB/s72-c/1329756641_5183cd4ddc_o.jpg
Asian Film Vault
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/2017/05/chinas-film-industry-blocked-by-its-own.html
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/
http://www.asianfilmvault.com/2017/05/chinas-film-industry-blocked-by-its-own.html
true
3944800929692556231
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS CONTENT IS PREMIUM Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy